1.                (Rule 100) General

 

All International Competitions, as defined in the Generally Applicable Definitions, shall be held under the Rules of World Athletics

In all competitions, events may be held in a different format from that provided under the Technical Rules, but rules giving more rights to the athletes than they would have obtained applying the actual Rules, may not be applied. These formats shall be decided or authorised by the relevant governing body having the control over the competition.

In the case of mass participation events held outside the stadium, these Rules should normally only be applied in full to those athletes, if any, who are designated as taking part in the elite or other defined section of the races such as age group categories for which there are placings for awards or prizes. Race organisers should outline in the information provided to other athletes which other rules will apply to their participation, particularly those pertaining to their safety.

Note: It is recommended that Members adopt the Rules for the conduct of their own athletics competitions.

 

Whilst these Rules already contemplate some variations from their strictest applications, it is emphasised that competition organisers may go even further in using different formats for competitions – the only restriction being that the athlete may not receive more “rights” in such circumstances. For example, it is acceptable to reduce the number of trials in a Field Event or reduce the time allowed for an athlete to take their trial but not to increase either.

 

With respect to mass participation Running and Race Walking Events, it is prescribed that these Rules shall only be fully applied to any elite component of the event or any other part designated by the organisers where there is a logical reason to do so, e.g. because of significant awards or prizes.

 

However, race organisers are advised to emphasise in the information provided to all participants the rules and procedures that will apply to the various categories, especially in relation to safety considerations, particularly when all or part of the race is not closed to traffic. This may for example allow athletes (other than those competing in the elite or other categories to whom Rule 6.3 of the Technical Rules would apply) to use head or earphones when they are running on a closed course but prohibit their use (or at least recommend against it) for the slower runners when the course is open to traffic.

 

 

2.                (Rule 140) The Athletics Facility

 

Any firm, uniform surface that conforms to the specifications in the Track and Field Facilities Manual, may be used for Track and Field Athletics.

 

Outdoor competitions 1.1 of the International Competition definition may be held only on facilities that hold a World Athletics Class 1 Athletics Facility Certificate. It is recommended that, when such facilities are available, outdoor competitions under paragraphs 1.2 to 1.10 of the International Competition definition should also be held on these facilities.

 

In any case, a World Athletics Class 2 Athletics Facility Certificate shall be required for all facilities intended for use for outdoor competitions under paragraphs 1.2 to 1.10 of the International Competition definition.

 

Note (i): The World Athletics Track and Field Facilities Manual, which is available from the World Athletics Office, or may be downloaded from the World Athletics website, contains more detailed and defined specifications for the planning and construction of Track and Field facilities including further diagrams for track measurement and marking.

 

Note (ii): The current standard forms required to be used for the certification application and measurement report as well as the Certification System Procedures are available from the World Athletics Office, or may be downloaded from the World Athletics website.

 

Note (iii): For Road Race Walking, Road Running or Cross Country, Mountain and Trail courses, see Rules 54.11, 55.2, 55.3, 56.1-5, and 57.1 of the Technical Rules.

 

Note (iv): For the indoor athletics facility, see Rule 41 of the Technical Rules.

 

3.                (Rule 141) Age and Sex Categories Age Categories

  • Competition under these Rules may be divided into age group classifications as follows or as additionally prescribed in the relevant competition regulations or by the relevant governing body:

Under-18 (U18) Men and Women: Any athlete of 16 or 17 years on 31st December in the year of the competition.

Under-20 (U20) Men and Women: Any athlete of 18 or 19 years on 31st December in the year of the competition.

Master Men and Women: Any athlete who has reached their 35th birthday.

Note (i): All other matters concerning Masters’ competitions are referred to the World Athletics/WMA Handbook approved by World Athletics and WMA.

 

Note (ii): Eligibility, including minimum ages for participation in Competitions, shall be subject to the applicable Technical Regulations.

 

  • An athlete shall be eligible to compete in an age group competition under these Rules if they are within the age range specified in the relevant age group classification. An athlete must be able to provide proof of their age through presentation of a valid passport or other form of evidence as permitted by the applicable regulations for the

 

competition. An athlete who fails or refuses to provide such proof shall not be eligible to compete.

 

Note: See Eligibility Rules for sanctions for non-compliance with this Rule 3.

 

Whilst Rule 3.1 of the Technical Rules defines the age groups in a particular way, it is the regulations for each competition which determine which age groups will apply and whether, as envisaged by Note (ii), younger athletes can participate.

 

Sex Categories

 

  • Competition under these Rules is divided into men’s, women’s and universal classifications. When a mixed competition is conducted outside the stadium or in one of the limited cases set out in Rule 9 of the Technical Rules, separate men’s and women’s classification results should still be declared or otherwise indicated. When a universal event or competition is conducted a single classification result only shall be declared.

 

  • An athlete shall be eligible to compete in men’s (or universal) competition if they either were born and, throughout their life, have always been recognised as a male or comply with the applicable Regulations issued pursuant to Rule 3.6.1 of the Technical Rules and are eligible to compete under the Rules and

 

  • An athlete shall be eligible to compete in women’s (or universal) competition if they either were born and, throughout their life, have always been recognised as a female or comply with the applicable Regulations issued pursuant to Rule 3.6.2 of the Technical Rules and are eligible to compete under the Rules and

 

  • The Council shall approve Regulations to determine the eligibility for:

 

  • men’s competition for males who are female to male Transgender;

 

  • women’s competition for females who are male to female Transgender; and

 

  • women’s competition for female classification (athletes with differences in sex development).

 

An athlete who fails or refuses to comply with the applicable regulations shall not be eligible to compete.

 

Note: See Eligibility Rules for sanctions for non-compliance with this Rule 3.

 

Universal competition covers events in which men and women participate together without separate classification of results as well as relay or team events in which both men and women are included in the same teams.

 

4.                (Rule 142) Entries

 

  • Competitions under the Rules are restricted to eligible

 

  • The eligibility of an athlete to compete outside of their own country is as set forth in Requirements to Compete in International Competitions Rules. Such eligibility shall be assumed unless an objection to their status is made to the Technical Delegate(s). (See also Rule 8.1 of the Technical )

 

Simultaneous Entries

 

  • If an athlete is entered in both a Track Event and a Field Event, or in more than one Field Event taking place simultaneously, the appropriate Referee may, for one round of trials at a time, or for each trial in the High Jump and Pole Vault, allow an athlete to take their trial in an order different from that decided upon by the draw prior to the start of the competition. However, if an athlete subsequently is not present for a particular trial, it shall be deemed that they are passing once the period allowed for the trial has

 

Note: In Field Events, the Referee shall not allow an athlete to take a trial in a different order in the final round of trials but the Referee may allow an athlete to do so during any earlier round of trials. In Combined Events, a change may be allowed in any round of trials.

 

The Note clarifies that allowing an athlete to take a trial in a different order in the final round of trials (irrespective of the number of rounds of trials) because of a clash with another event is not permitted. If an athlete is not present in the final round and has not previously indicated that they will pass, then the time allowed for their trial will run and if they do not return before it expires, then they will be recorded as passing. [See also Rule 25.18 of the Technical Rules where a change of order will normally not be made when a replacement trial is awarded – in any round of trials.]

 

Whilst Rules 4.3 and 26.2 of the Technical Rules provide that an athlete may not attempt the second or third trial at any particular height in Vertical Jumps if it has been deemed that they have passed an earlier trial at that height, it is suggested that in lower level competitions such as children’s and school meets, the competition regulations could be adapted so as to allow an athlete to opt to take the second or third trial in such cases.

 

Failure to Participate

 

  • At all competitions under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, an athlete shall be excluded from participation in all further events (including other events in which they are simultaneously participating) in the competition, including relays, in cases where:

 

  • final confirmation was given that the athlete would start in an event but then failed to participate;

 

Note: A fixed time for the final confirmation of participation shall be published in advance.

 

  • an athlete qualified in any Qualification Round of an event for further participation in that event but then failed to participate further;

 

  • an athlete failed to compete honestly with bona fide effort. The relevant Referee will decide on this and the corresponding reference must be made in the official

 

Note: The situation foreseen in Rule 4.4.3 of the Technical Rules will not apply to individual events within Combined Events.

 

However, a medical certificate, provided by and based on an examination of the athlete by the Medical Delegate appointed under Rule 6 of the Competition Rules or, if no Medical Delegate has been so appointed, by a medical doctor so designated by

 

the Organisers, may be accepted as sufficient reason to accept that the athlete became unable to compete after confirmations closed or after competing in a  previous round but will be able to compete in further events (except Combined Events individual events) on a subsequent day of the competition. Other justifiable reasons (e.g. factors independent of the athlete’s own actions, such as problems with the official transport system) may, after confirmation, also be accepted by the Technical Delegate(s).

 

The relevant Referee, once aware of such a situation and is satisfied that the athlete who abandoned the race was not competing with a bona fide effort, must make a reference to this in the relevant results as “DNF TR4.4.3”. Either in the process of the Referee making such a decision or the Jury of the Appeal considering any protest arising from it, reasons for the withdrawal or non-participation proposed by or on behalf of the athlete can be considered. The Rule sets out the process that should explicitly be followed in the case of a medical reason.

 

Failure to Report to the Call Room(s)

 

  • Subject always to any additional sanction under Rule 4.4 of the Technical Rules, and except as provided below, an athlete shall be excluded from participation in any event in which they are not present in the Call Room(s) at the relevant time as published in the Call Room schedule (see Call Room Judges Rule of the Competition Rules). They shall be shown in the results as

 

The relevant Referee will decide on this (including whether the athlete may compete under protest if a decision cannot be made immediately) and the corresponding reference must be made in the official results.

 

Justifiable reasons (e.g. factors independent of the athlete’s own actions, such as problems with the official transport system or an error in the published Call Room schedule) may, after confirmation, be accepted by the Referee and the athlete may then be allowed to take part.

 

  1. (Rule 143) Clothing, Shoes and Athlete Bibs (amendments in bold red in force from 31 January 2020, unless specified otherwise)

 

Clothing

 

  • In all events, athletes must wear clothing which is clean, and designed and worn so as not to be objectionable. The clothing must be made of a material which is non- transparent even if wet. Athletes must not wear clothing which could impede the view of the

 

At all competitions under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.6 and 1.7 of the International Competition definition, and when representing their Member Federation under paragraphs 1.4 and 1.8 of the International Competition definition, athletes shall participate in the uniform clothing approved by their Member Federation. The Victory Ceremony and any lap of honour are considered part of the competition for this purpose.

 

Note (i): Rule 5.1 of the Technical Rules should be interpreted widely in terms  of what “could impede the view of the judges”, including athletes wearing their hair in a particular way.

 

Shoes

 

  • Athletes may compete barefoot or with footwear on one or both feet. The purpose of shoes for competition is to give protection and stability to the feet and a firm grip on the ground. They must not give athletes any unfair assistance or advantage. Any type of shoe must be reasonably available to all in the spirit of the universality of athletics. To meet that requirement, any shoe that is first introduced after 30 April 2020 may not be used in competition unless and until it has been available for purchase by any athlete on the open retail market (i.e. either in store or online) for at least four months prior to that competition. Any shoe that does not meet this requirement is deemed a prototype and may not be used in competition.

 

  • A shoe that meets the criteria set out in this Rule 5 may be customised to suit the characteristic of a particular athlete’s foot. Shoes made to order to suit the characteristics of an athlete’s foot or other requirements are not

 

  • Where World Athletics has reason to believe that a type of shoe or specific technology may not comply with the letter or spirit of the Rules, it may refer the shoe or technology for detailed examination and it may prohibit the use of such shoes or technology in competition pending examination.

 

Note (i): At least four months prior to an International Competition at which an athlete proposes to wear a shoe that has not previously been used in International Competitions, the athlete (or their representative) must submit to World Athletics the specification (i.e. size, dimensions, sole thickness, structure etc.) of that new shoe; confirm if the new shoe is to be customised in any way; and provide information about the availability of the new shoe on the open retail market (i.e. either in store or online). After reviewing this information World Athletics may request that samples of the shoe be submitted by the manufacturer for further examination. If the shoe is requested for further investigation, World Athletics will use reasonable efforts to complete its examination as soon as practicable (if possible, within 30 days of receipt of the shoe by World Athletics).

 

Number of Spikes

 

  • The sole and heel of the shoes may be so constructed as to provide for the use of up to 11 spikes. Any number of spikes up to 11 may be used but the number of spike positions shall not exceed

 

Dimensions of Spikes

 

  • That part of each spike which projects from the sole or the heel shall not exceed 9mm except in the High Jump and Javelin Throw, where it shall not exceed 12mm. The spike must be so constructed that it will, at least for the half of its length closest to the tip, fit through a square sided 4mm gauge. If the track manufacturer or the stadium operator mandates a lesser maximum, this shall be

 

Note (i): The surface must be suitable for accepting the spikes permitted under this Rule.

 

Note (ii): For Cross Country competitions, the specific regulations or the Technical Delegates may allow an increased length of the sizes of the spikes of the shoes depending on the surface.

 

The Sole and the Heel

 

  • The sole and/or the heel of the shoe may have grooves, ridges, indentations or protuberances, provided these features are constructed of the same or similar material to the basic sole

 

In the High Jump and Long Jump, the sole shall have a maximum thickness of 13mm, save that in High Jump the sole beneath the heal shall have a maximum thickness of 19mm. Subject to Rule 5.13, in all other events the sole and/or heel may be of any thickness.

 

Note (i): The thickness of the sole shall be measured when the shoe is not being worn, at the centre of the forefoot and the centre of the heal as the distance between the inside top side and the outside under side that contacts the ground, including the above-mentioned features and also including any kind or form of loose inner sole or other appliance or insert. See Figure (a) below:

 

Figure (a) – Measuring the thickness of the sole

 
  

 

Note (ii): The centre of the forefoot is the centre point of the shoe at 75% of its internal length. The centre of the heel is the centre point of the shoe at 12% of its internal length. See Figure (b), below. For a standard sample unisex size 42 (EUR), the centre of the forefoot will be the centre point of the shoe approximately 203mm from the inside back of the shoe, and the centre of the heel will be the centre point of the shoe approximately 32mm from the inside back of the shoe.

 

 
  

Figure (b) – Location for measurement of the centre of the forefoot and heel

 

Note (iii): The maximum sole thicknesses referred to in Rule 5 are based on the sole thickness of a standard sample unisex size 42 (EUR). World Athletics acknowledges that a shoe above that standard sample size might contain a marginally thicker sole than that of a standard sample size shoe of the same make and model, which marginal increase in sole thickness is only attributable to the larger size of the shoe. Such marginal increases will be disregarded for the purposes of confirming compliance with these Rules.

 

Inserts and Additions to the Shoe

 

  • Athletes may not use any appliance, either inside or outside the shoe, which will have the effect of increasing the thickness of the sole above the permitted maximum, or which can give the wearer any advantage which they would not obtain from the type of shoe described in the previous

 

Please refer to the further rules on shoes set out at Rules 5.12 (Non- Compliance) and 5.13 (Moratorium) below.

 

Athlete Bibs

 

  • Every athlete shall be provided with two bibs which, during the competition, shall be worn visibly on the front of the torso and back, except in the Jumping Events, where one bib may be worn on the front of the torso or back only. Either the athletes’ names or other suitable identification will be allowed instead of numbers on any or all of the bibs. If numbers are used, they shall correspond with the number allocated to the athlete on the start list or in the programme. If track suits are worn during the competition, bibs shall be worn on the track suit in a similar

 

  • No athlete shall be allowed to take part in any competition without displaying the appropriate bib(s) and/or

 

  • These bibs must be worn as issued and may not be cut, folded or obscured in any way. In running or walking events of 10,000 metres and longer, the bibs may be perforated to assist the circulation of air, but the perforation must not be made on any of the lettering or numerals which appear on

 

  • Where a Photo Finish System is in operation, the Organisers may require athletes to wear additional number identification of an adhesive type on the side of their shorts or lower

 

  • If an athlete does not follow any part of this Rule 5 and:

 

  • refuses the direction of the relevant Referee to comply; or

 

  • participates in the competition,

 

they shall be disqualified.

 

Rule 5.11 of the Technical Rules prescribes the sanction if any aspect of Rule 5 of the Technical Rules is not followed. It is expected however that where possible the relevant officials should request and encourage the athlete to comply and to advise them of the consequence if they do not. But where an athlete does not follow an aspect of the Rule during competition and it is not practical for an official to request compliance, athletes should note that disqualification may follow.

 

It is a responsibility of the Starters Assistants and Umpires (for Track and Out of Stadium Events) and the Judges (for Field Events) to be vigilant on these matters and report any apparent breaches to the relevant Referee.

 

Non-Compliance

 

  • If the Referee has a reasonable suspicion that a shoe worn by an athlete in a competition might not comply with the letter or the spirit of the Rules, the Referee may request and the athlete must immediately hand over the shoe to the Referee at the conclusion of the event for further investigation by World Athletics. However, where it has already been declared that a shoe does not comply with the letter or spirit of the Rules, the relevant Referee shall immediately act in accordance with Rule 11.

 

When shoes have been handed over to the Referee under Rule 5.12 and the athlete intends to subsequently compete in later rounds of the same event or in other events during the same competition, the Referee shall ensure the shoes are available to the athlete to use in each such subsequent event. How, when and on what conditions the shoe is made available to the athlete during the competition is at the Referees’ discretion. (new green text)

 

Moratorium

 

  • Until further notice, unless specifically agreed by World Athletics in writing, any shoe used in competition:

 

  • (save for where Rule 5.13.2 applies) must not contain more than one rigid plate or blade made from carbon fibre or another material with similar properties or producing similar effects, whether that plate runs the full length of the shoe or only part of the length of the shoe; and

 

  • may contain one additional rigid plate or other mechanism only where used solely to attach spikes to the outer underside of the shoe; and

 

  • must have a sole with a maximum thickness of no more than 40mm (save that any shoe that contains spikes must have a sole with a maximum thickness of no more than 30mm).

 

Note (i): See the notes to Rule 5.5 for information about measurement of the shoe sole thickness.

 

Note (ii): The one rigid plate or blade referred to in Rule 5.13.1 may be in more than one part but those parts must be located sequentially, in one plane, not in parallel (i.e., not stacked above each other), and must not overlap.

 

6.                (Rule 144) Assistance to Athletes Medical Examination and Assistance

  • Medical examination / treatment and/or physiotherapy may be provided either on the competition area itself by the official medical staff appointed by the Organisers and identified by armbands, vests or similar distinctive apparel or in designated medical treatment areas outside the competition area by accredited team medical personnel specifically approved by the Medical or Technical Delegate(s) for the purpose. In neither case shall the intervention delay the conduct of the competition or an athlete’s

 

trial in the designated order. Such attendance or assistance by any other person, whether immediately before competition, once athletes have left the Call Room or during competition, is assistance.

 

Note: The competition area, which normally also has a physical barrier, is defined for this purpose as the area where the competition is being staged and which has an access restricted to the competing athletes and personnel authorised in accordance with the relevant rules and regulations.

 

  • Any athlete giving or receiving assistance from within the competition area during an event (including under Rules 17.14, 17.15, 54.10 and 55.8 of the Technical Rules) shall be warned by the Referee and advised that, if there is any repetition, they will be disqualified from that

 

Note: In cases under Rule 6.3.1 of the Technical Rules, disqualification may be made without warning.

 

Assistance not Allowed

 

  • For the purpose of this Rule, the following examples shall be considered assistance, and are therefore not allowed:

 

  • Pacing in races by persons not participating in the same race, by athletes lapped or about to be lapped or by any kind of technical device (other than those permitted under Rule 6.4.4 of the Technical Rules).

 

  • Possession or use of video recorders, radios, CD, radio transmitters, mobile phone or similar devices in the competition

 

  • Except for shoes complying with Rule 5 of the Technical Rules, the use of any technology or appliance that provides the user with an advantage which they would not have obtained using the equipment specified in, or permitted by, the

 

  • The use of any mechanical aid, unless the athlete can establish on the balance of probabilities that the use of an aid would not provide them with an overall competitive advantage over an athlete not using such

 

  • Provision of advice or other support by any official of the competition not related to or required by their specific role in the competition at the time (e.g., coaching advice, indication of the take-off point in a jumping event except to indicate a failure in Horizontal Jumps, time or distance gaps in a race ).

 

  • Receiving physical support from another athlete (other than helping to recover to a standing position) that assists in making forward progression in a

 

Assistance Allowed

 

  • For the purpose of this Rule, the following shall not be considered assistance, and are therefore allowed:

 

  • Communication between the athletes and their coaches not placed in the competition

 

In order to facilitate this communication and not to disturb the staging of the competition, a place in the stands, close to the competition area of each Field Event, should be reserved to the athletes’ coaches.

 

Note: Coaches and other persons otherwise complying with Rules 54.10 and 55.8 of the Technical Rules may communicate with their athlete(s).

 

  • Medical examination / treatment and/or physiotherapy necessary to enable an athlete to participate or continue participation once on the competition area under Rule 6.1 of the Technical

 

  • Any kind of personal safeguard (e.g. bandage, tape, belt, support, wrist cooler, breathing aid etc.) for protection and/or medical purposes. The Referee, in conjunction with the Medical Delegate, shall have the authority to verify any case should the Referee judge that to be desirable. (See also Rules 32.4 and 32.5 of the Technical )

 

  • Heart rate or speed distance monitors or stride sensors or similar devices carried or worn personally by athletes during an event, provided that such device cannot be used to communicate with any other

 

  • Viewing by athletes competing in Field Events, of images of previous trial(s), recorded on their behalf by persons not placed in the competition area (see Note to Rule 6.1 of the Technical Rules). The viewing device or images taken from it must not be taken into the competition

 

  • Hats, gloves, shoes, items of clothing provided to athletes at official stations or when otherwise approved by the relevant

 

  • Receiving physical support from an official or other person designated by the organisers to recover to a standing position or to access medical assistance.

 

  • Electronic lights or similar appliance indicating progressive times during a race, including of a relevant

 

Rule 6 of the Technical Rules has been the subject of constant change in recent years to reflect the way in which athletics is conducted, to respect the role of coaches, to manage innovation and new products, etc. World Athletics will continue to respond to new products and trends as soon as they become common place during events and competitions.

 

Changes to these rules are designed to facilitate the athletes’ participation in the competition as much as possible and to reduce unnecessary conflict between athletes/coaches and the officials. Each of these rules should be interpreted in this light whilst always ensuring the competition is conducted fairly to all.

 

Rule 6.3.5 of the Technical Rules however makes it clear that the officials should not assist any athlete beyond what is required of their role – and specifically states as an example that officials should not provide details of the take-off position in jumping events, other than for the purpose of indicating the point of “impact” in a foul jump in Horizontal Jumps.

 

7.                (Rule 145) Effect of Disqualification

 

Disqualification resulting from an infringement of a Technical Rule (other than Rule

18.5 of the Competition Rules and Rule 16.5 of the Technical Rules)

 

  • If an athlete is disqualified in an event for an infringement of a Technical Rule (except under Rule 18.5 of the Competition Rules or Rule 16.5 of the Technical Rules) any performance accomplished in the same round of that event up to the time of the disqualification shall not be valid. However, performances accomplished in a previous round of that event shall remain valid. Such disqualification from an event shall not prevent an athlete from taking part in any further event in that

 

Disqualification resulting from exclusion under Rule 18.5 of the Competition Rules (including under Rule 16.5 of the Technical Rules)

 

  • If an athlete is excluded from competition under Rule 18.5 of the Competition Rules, they shall be disqualified from that event. If the athlete’s second warning occurs in a different event, they shall be disqualified only from the second event. Any performance accomplished in the same round of that event up to the time of the disqualification shall not be valid. However, performances accomplished in a previous round of that event, other previous events or previous individual events of a Combined Event shall remain valid. Such disqualification shall prevent an athlete from taking part in all further events, (including individual events of a Combined Event, other events in which they are simultaneously participating and relays) in that competition.

 

  • If a relay team is excluded from competition under Rule 18.5 of the Competition Rules, it shall be disqualified from that event. Performances accomplished in a previous round of that event shall remain valid. Such disqualification shall not prevent any athlete or relay from that team taking part in all further events (including individual events of a Combined Event, other events in which they are simultaneously participating and relays) in that

 

  • If the offence is considered serious, the Competition Director shall report it to the relevant governing body for consideration of further disciplinary

 

8.                (Rule 146) Protests and Appeals

 

  • Protests concerning the status of an athlete to participate in a competition must be made, prior to the commencement of such competition, to the Technical Delegate(s). Once the Technical Delegate(s) make(s) a decision, there shall be a right of appeal to the Jury of Appeal. If the matter cannot be settled satisfactorily prior to the competition, the athlete shall be allowed to compete “under protest” and the matter be referred to the relevant governing

 

  • Protests concerning the result or conduct of an event shall be made within 30 minutes of the official announcement of the result of that

 

The Organisers of the competition shall be responsible for ensuring that the time of the announcement of all results is recorded.

 

  • Any protest shall be made orally to the Referee by an athlete, by someone acting on their behalf or by an official representative of a team. Such person or team may protest only if they are competing in the same round of the event to which the protest (or subsequent appeal) relates (or are competing in a competition in which a team

 

points score is being conducted). To arrive at a fair decision, the Referee should consider any available evidence which they think necessary, including a film or picture produced by an official video recorder, or any other available video evidence. The Referee may decide on the protest or may refer the matter to the Jury of Appeal. If the Referee makes a decision, there shall be a right of appeal to the Jury. Where the Referee is not accessible or available, the protest should be made to them through the Technical Information Centre.

 

  • In a Track Event,

 

  • if an athlete makes an immediate oral protest against having been charged with a false start, a Track Referee may, if they are in any doubt, allow the athlete to compete “under protest” in order to preserve the rights of all concerned. Competing “under protest” shall not be allowed if the false start was indicated by a World Athletics certified Start Information System, unless for any reason the Referee determines that the information provided by the System is obviously

 

  • a protest may be based on the failure of the Starter to recall a false start or, under Rule 16.5 of the Technical Rules, to abort a start. The protest may be made only by, or on behalf of, an athlete who has completed the race. If the protest is upheld, any athlete who committed the false start or whose conduct should have led to the start being aborted, and who was subject to warning or disqualification according to Rules 16.5, 16.7, 16.8 or 39.8.3 of the Technical Rules, shall be warned or disqualified. Whether or not there may be any warning or disqualification, the Referee shall have the authority to declare the event or part of the event void and that it or part of it shall be held again if in their opinion justice demands

 

Note: The right of protest and appeal in Rule 8.4.2 of the Technical Rules shall apply whether or not a Start Information System is used.

 

  • if a protest or appeal is based on an athlete’s incorrect exclusion from an event due to a false start and it is upheld after the completion of the race, then the athlete should be afforded the opportunity to run on their own to record a time in the event and consequently, if applicable, to be advanced to subsequent rounds. No athlete should be advanced to a subsequent round without competing in all rounds unless the Referee or Jury of Appeal determines otherwise in the particular circumstances of the case, e.g. the shortness of time before the next round or the length of the

 

Note: This Rule may also be applied by the Referee, the Jury of Appeal in other circumstances where it is deemed appropriate (see Rule 17.2 of the Technical Rules).

 

  • when a protest is made by or on behalf of an athlete or team which did not finish a race, the Referee must first ascertain whether the athlete or team was or should have been disqualified for a breach of the Rules unrelated to the matter raised in the protest. Should that be the case the protest shall be dismissed.

 

When the Start Referee decides on an immediate oral protest made by an athlete for being charged with a false start, they have to consider all the available data and in case of only a reasonable possibility that the athlete’s protest may be valid, they should allow the athlete to compete under protest. After the race, a final decision

 

must be taken by the Referee, a decision that may be subject of an appeal to the Jury. But to be clear, the Referee should not allow an athlete to compete under protest if the false start has been detected by a Start Information System that appears to be working properly or in cases where it is very clear by visual observation that the athlete has committed a false start and there is no valid reason to allow the protest.

 

These rules not only apply where a Starter failed to recall a false start but where also a Starter failed to correctly “abort” a start. In both cases the Referee must consider all factors involved in the particular case and must decide if the race (or part of it) has to be re-held.

 

Giving two examples of extreme situations, it will not be logical or necessary to re-run a Marathon race in a case where an athlete who finishes was responsible for a non-recalled false start. But the same will probably not be the case in a sprint event where an athlete was responsible for a non-recalled false start as this may have affected the start and subsequent race of other athletes.

 

On the other hand, if for example in a preliminary round, or perhaps even more so in a race within a Combined Event, it was clear that only one or some athletes were disadvantaged by a failure to recall a false start or to abort a start, a Referee could decide that only those athletes be given the opportunity to run again – and if so under what conditions.

 

Rule 8.4.3 of the Technical Rules covers the situation in which an athlete is wrongly given a false start and excluded from a race.

 

  • In a Field Event, if an athlete makes an immediate oral protest against having a trial judged as a failure, the Referee of the event may, if they are in any doubt, order that the trial be measured and the result recorded, in order to preserve the rights of all concerned.

 

If the protested trial occurred:

 

  • during the first three rounds of trials of a horizontal Field Event in which more than eight athletes are competing, and the athlete would advance to any subsequent rounds of trials only if the protest or subsequent appeal was upheld; or

 

  • in a vertical Field Event, where the athlete would advance to a higher height only if the protest or subsequent appeal is upheld,

 

the Referee may, if they are in any doubt, allow the athlete to continue competing “under protest” to preserve the rights of all concerned.

 

In cases where the Referee is sure that the decision of the Judges is correct, particularly by their own observation or advice received from a Video Referee, the athlete should not be allowed to continue.

 

But when considering whether to order the measurement of a trial which is the subject of an immediate oral protest the Referee should:

 

  1. not do so in cases where there was a clear breach of the Rules, for example in the long jump a clear mark made in the plasticine by the athlete in question or in a throwing event where the implement has clearly landed outside the sector;
  2. always do so (and immediately so as to not delay the competition) in cases where there is any

 

The good operation of this Rule means that the Judge with the spike or prism should always mark the point of landing (except in throwing events where the implement clearly lands outside the sector) even when they see a red flag. Apart from the possibility that the athlete may make an immediate oral protest, it is also possible that the Judge with the flags may have incorrectly or accidentally raised the wrong one.

 

  • The protested performance of the athlete and any other performance achieved by them while competing “under protest” will become valid only if a subsequent decision to that effect is made by the Referee or an appeal to the Jury of Appeal is made and it is

 

In Field Events where, as a result of an athlete competing “under protest”, another athlete is allowed to continue in the competition when they would otherwise not have done so, such athlete’s performances and eventual results will remain valid irrespective of whether the “under protest” athlete’s immediate oral protest is successful.

 

Rule 8.6 of the Technical Rules applies to all events, not only to Field Events.

 

  • An appeal to the Jury of Appeal must be made within 30 minutes:

 

  • of the official announcement of the amended result of an event arising from the decision made by the Referee; or

 

  • of the advice being given to those making the protest, where there is no amendment of any result.

 

It shall be in writing, signed by the athlete, by someone acting on their behalf or by an official representative of a team and shall be accompanied by a deposit of USD 100, or its equivalent, which will be forfeited if the appeal is not allowed. Such athlete or team may appeal only if they are competing in the same round of the event to which the appeal relates (or are competing in a competition on which a team points score is being conducted).

 

Note: The relevant Referee shall, after their decision on a protest, immediately inform the TIC of the time of the decision. If the Referee was unable to communicate this orally to the relevant team(s) /athlete (s), the official time of the announcement will be that of posting of the amended result or of the decision at the TIC.

 

  • The Jury of Appeal shall consult all relevant persons, including the relevant Referee (except when their decision is to be fully maintained by the Jury of Appeal). If the Jury of Appeal is in doubt, other available evidence may be considered. If such evidence, including any available video evidence, is not conclusive, the decision of the Referee or the Chief Race Walking Judge shall be

 

  • The Jury of Appeal may reconsider a decision if new conclusive evidence is presented, provided the new decision is still applicable. Normally, such re- consideration may be undertaken only prior to the Victory Ceremony for the applicable event, unless the relevant governing body determines that circumstances justify

 

In certain circumstances, the Judges (Rule 19.2 of the Competition Rules), the Referee (Rule

18.6 of the Competition Rules) and the Jury (Rule 8.9 of the Technical Rules) can each reconsider a decision made by them – if it is still applicable and practical to do so.

 

  • Decisions involving points which are not covered by the Rules shall be reported subsequently by the Chairman of the Jury of Appeal to the Chief Executive Officer of World

 

  • The decision of the Jury of Appeal (or of the Referee in the absence of a Jury of Appeal or if no appeal to the Jury is made) shall be final and there shall be no further right of appeal, including to

 

9.                (Rule 147) Mixed Competition

 

  • Universal competitions such as relays or other team events in which men and women compete together or events in which men and women compete for a single classification are permitted in accordance with the applicable regulations of the relevant

 

  • Other than under Rule 9.1 for all other competitions held completely in the stadium, mixed events between male and female participants shall not normally be

 

However, the following may be permitted in all competitions except those held under paragraphs 1.1 to 1.3 and 1. 6 of the International Competition definition. In the case of competitions held under paragraphs 1.4, 1.5 and 1.7 to 1.10 of the International Competition definition such competition shall always be allowed in Field Events and  in events per Rule 9.2.1 of the Technical Rules, if specifically permitted by the relevant Area Association:

 

  • mixed stadium competition in races of 5000m or longer but it is permitted only when there are insufficient athletes of one or both sexes competing to justify the conduct of separate races. The sex of each athlete shall be shown in the result. Such races shall not, in any case, be conducted so as to allow athletes of one sex to be paced or assisted by athletes of another sex.

 

  • Field Events for men and women may be conducted simultaneously at one or more event sites. Separate result cards shall be used and results declared for each sex. Each round of trials of such events may be conducted either by calling all athletes of one sex followed by the other or by alternating them. For the purposes of Rule 25.17 of the Technical Rules, all athletes shall be regarded as if they were of the same sex. Where Vertical Jumps are conducted on a single event site, Rules 26 to 28 of the Technical Rules must be strictly applied, including that the bar must continue to be raised in accordance with a single set of previously announced increments for the entire

 

The intent of Rule 9.2.1 of the Technical Rules is to facilitate the conduct of races of 5000m or longer, when small numbers of athletes of one or both sexes are entered in the case of longer events (i.e. a track Race Walk of 10,000m or more), where timetabling constraints make it difficult to program separate races. The intent of the Rule is not to provide opportunity for women to compete in races against men to achieve potentially better performance conditions.

 

To be clear, mixed competition in Field Events and in races of 5000m or longer is:

 

  1. permitted in all national competitions, subject only to the rules of the applicable federation. [No additional permission from an Area Association is required];

 

  1. permitted in a competition held under paragraphs 1.9 and 1.10 of the International Competition definition if specifically permitted by the relevant Area Association;

 

  1. not permitted in a competition held under paragraphs 1.1 to 1.8 of the International Competition definition unless in the case of Field Events the applicable regulations for the competition so

 

There are also restrictions on the recognition of World Records in mixed competitions – see Rules 31.1 (with reference to track races of 5000m and longer) and 32 (with reference to women’s road races) of the Competition Rules. Rule 32 of the Competition Rules Note (ii) provides guidance on how a women only race can be achieved (enabling a women only record to be set) in a situation where both men and women are or might be competing.

 

[See also Rules 25.2 and 25.3 of the Competition Rules]

 

10.             (Rule 148) Surveying and Measurements

 

  • The accuracy of the markings and installations for athletics facilities under Rules 2 and 11.2 of the Technical Rules shall be checked by an appropriately qualified surveyor who shall furnish appropriate certificates together with details of any check measurements made to the relevant body and/or the facility owner or operator. They shall be given full access to stadium plans and drawings and the latest measurement report for the purpose of this

 

  • For Track and Field Events in competitions under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, all measurements shall be made with a calibrated steel tape or bar or with a scientific measuring device. The steel tape, bar or scientific measuring device shall be manufactured and calibrated according to international standards. The accuracy of the measuring equipment used in the competition shall have been verified by an appropriate organisation accredited by the national measurement

 

At competitions other than those held under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, fibreglass tapes may also be used.

 

Note: Concerning acceptance of Records, see Rule 31.17.1 of the Competition Rules.

 

11.             (Rule 149) Validity of Performances

 

  • No performance accomplished by an athlete will be valid unless it is accomplished during an official competition organised in conformity with the

 

  • Performances in events normally conducted in the stadium, made outside traditional athletics facilities (such as those held in town squares, other sporting facilities, beaches, etc.) or on temporary facilities built within a stadium shall be valid and recognised for all purposes, if they are made subject to all of the following conditions:

 

  • the relevant governing body as provided in Rules 2 to 3 of the Competition Rules has issued a permit for the event;

 

  • a qualified panel of National Technical Officials are appointed to and officiate at the event;

 

  • where applicable, equipment and implements in conformity with the Rules are used; and

 

  • the event is conducted in a competition area or facility in conformity with the Rules and in respect of which a survey has been made in accordance with Rule 10 of the Technical Rules before the event and, where possible, on the day of the

 

Note: The current standard forms required to be used for reporting on the conformity of the competition area or facility are available from the World Athletics Office, or may be downloaded from the World Athletics website.

 

When a competition described in Rule 11.2 of the Technical Rules is held over more than one day, the survey should be made on the day of the first event. In either case if the surveyor can be satisfied that there will be no movement of alteration to the facilities being surveyed, the survey may be completed up to two days prior to the day of the first event.

 

  • Performances made in accordance with these Rules in Qualification Rounds, in deciding ties in High Jump and Pole Vault, in any event or part of an event which is subsequently decreed void under the provisions of Rule 18.7 of the Competition Rules, or Rules 8.4.2, 17.2 or 25.20 of the Technical Rules, in Race Walking events in which Rule 54.7.3 of the Technical Rules is applied and the athlete is not disqualified or in individual events in Combined Events competitions, regardless of whether or not the athlete completes the whole Combined Events competition, will normally be regarded as valid for purposes such as statistics, records, rankings and the achievement of entry

 

World Athletics has exceptionally determined that solely for the purpose of determining whether an athlete has achieved the entry standard for a Combined Events competition:

 

“The conditions shall have been complied with in each of the individual events, except that, in events where wind velocity is measured, at least one of the following conditions shall be satisfied:

 

  1. The velocity in any individual event shall not exceed plus 4 metres per second.
  2. The average velocity (based on the algebraic sum of the wind velocities, as measured for each individual event, divided by the number of such events) shall not exceed plus 2 metres per ”

 

12.             (Rule 150) Video Recording

 

In competitions held under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 of the International Competition definition and, whenever possible, in other competitions, an official video recording of all events to the satisfaction of the Technical Delegate(s) shall be made. It should be sufficient to support the role of the Video Referee when appointed and in other situations to demonstrate the accuracy of performances and any violation of the Rules.

 

Specific information is provided in the Video Recording and Video Referee Guidelines, which may be downloaded from the World Athletics website.

 

The appointment at any competition of a Video Referee will significantly affect the practical oversight of many aspects of those competitions at which sufficient video collection and replay systems are available.

 

The Video Referee will generally be able to act proactively in respect of the track events (e.g. the start, running inside the lane line around the curve, jostling and obstruction, breaking from lanes too early, relay changeovers). If the number of cameras and equipment is

 

sufficient to play a similar role for some or all of the Field Events, they can undertake a similar role, but usually in a more reactive fashion when the on-field Referee requests further examination or review of a specific incident.

 

In the case of the Track Events, the Video Referee will observe the races on one or more screens in the video room and then based on either their own observations or upon referral from a Referee or Chief Umpire in the competition area, examine one or more particular issues by looking at any replayed footage that might be available. If it is clear as a result that there has been an infringement of the Rules, then they should take the appropriate decision and convey it to the Track Referee and the Chief Photo Finish Judge. Similarly, if an Umpire or trackside Referee has reported a potential infringement, it should be checked by the Video Referee and the appropriate advice provided and decision taken.

 

In addition, official video footage will as in the past continue to be used to assist in dealing with protests and appeals.

 

It is becoming common for experienced companies to provide an existing service for competitions rather than Organisers setting up their own. However, either option can be used.

 

13.             (Rule 151) Scoring

 

In a match where the result is to be determined by the scoring of points, the method of scoring shall be agreed by all the competing Members or teams before the start of the match, unless provided for in the applicable regulations.

 

PART II – TRACK EVENTS

(In force from 1 November 2019)

 

Rules 17.2, 17.6 (except under Rules 54.12 and 55.9), 17.14, 18.2, 19 and 21.1 of the Technical Rules also apply to Parts VI, VII, and VIII of the Technical Rules.

 

14.             (Rule 160) Track Measurements

 

  • The length of a standard running track shall be 400m. It shall consist of two parallel straights and two bends whose radii shall be equal. The inside of the track shall be bordered by a kerb of suitable material that should be coloured white, with a height of 50mm to 65mm and a width of 50mm to 250mm. The kerb on the two straights may be omitted and a white line 50mm wide

 

If a section of the kerb on a bend has to be temporarily removed for Field Events, its place on the surface beneath shall be marked with a white line 50mm in width and by cones or flags, minimum height 0.15m, placed on the white line so that the edge of the base of the cone or flag pole coincides with the edge of the white line closest to the track, and placed at intervals not exceeding 4m (2m for the curved part of an inside steeplechase diversion). (Flags shall be placed at an angle of 60° with the ground away from the track.) This (including also the option of temporary kerbing) shall also apply to the curved section of the steeplechase track where athletes divert from the main track to negotiate the water jump, to the outer half of the track in the case of starts according to Rule 17.5.2 of the Technical Rules and, optionally, to the straights, in this latter case, at intervals not exceeding 10m.

 

Note: All points on lane 1 inside lane line at which the track changes from a curve to a straight or a straight to a curve shall be marked, in a distinctive colour 50mm x 50mm on the white line, by the surveyor and a cone placed at such points during a race.

 

  • The measurement shall be taken 0.30m outward from the kerb or, where no kerb exists on a bend (or the diversion from the track for the steeplechase water jump), 0.20m from the line marking the inside of the

 

 

 
  

 

 

Figure TR14 (Rule 160) – Track measurements (infield view)

 

  • The distance of the race shall be measured from the edge of the start line farther from the finish to the edge of the finish line nearer to the

 

  • In all races up to and including 400m, each athlete shall have a separate lane, with a width of 1.22m ± 0.01m, including the lane line on the right, marked by white lines 50mm in width. All lanes shall be of the same nominal width. The inner lane shall be measured as stated in Rule 14.2, but the remaining lanes shall be measured 0.20m from the outer edges of the

 

Note: For all tracks constructed before 1 January 2004 for all such races, the lane may have a width of maximum 1.25m. However, when such a track is fully resurfaced, the lane width shall comply with this Rule.

 

  • In International Competitions under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, the track should allow for eight lanes

 

  • The lateral inclination of tracks towards the inside edge should not exceed 1:100 (1%) unless special circumstances exist which justify World Athletics providing an exemption, and the overall downward inclination in the running direction shall not exceed 1:1000 (0.1%).

 

  • Full technical information on track construction, layout and marking is contained in the World Athletics Track and Field Facilities Manual. This Rule gives basic principles, which must be

 

When any section of the kerb is temporarily removed this should be kept to a minimum, sufficient to enable the Field Events to function fairly and efficiently.

 

Colours to use for marking the track are indicated on the Track Marking Plan included in the World Athletics Track and Field Facilities Manual.

 

15.             (Rule 161) Starting Blocks

 

  • Starting blocks shall be used for all races up to and including 400m (including the first leg of the 4 × 200m, the Medley Relay and 4 × 400m) and shall not be used for any other race. When in position on the track, no part of the starting block shall overlap the start line or extend into another lane, with the exception that, provided there is no obstruction to any other athlete, the rear part of the frame may extend beyond the outer lane

 

  • Starting blocks shall comply with the following general specifications:

 

  • The starting blocks shall consist of two foot plates, against which the athlete’s feet are pressed in the starting position and which shall be mounted on a rigid frame. They shall be entirely rigid in construction and shall give no unfair advantage to the athlete. The frame shall in no way obstruct the athlete’s feet as they leave the

 

  • The foot plates shall be sloped to suit the starting position of the athlete, and may be flat or slightly concave. The surface of the foot plates shall accommodate the spikes in the athlete’s shoes, either by using slots or recesses in the face of the foot plate or by covering the surface of the foot plate with suitable material permitting the use of spiked

 

  • The mounting of the foot plates on the frame may be adjustable, but it shall allow no movement during the actual start. In all cases, the foot plates shall

 

be adjustable forward or backward in relation to each other. The adjustments shall be secured by firm clamps or a locking mechanism, which can be easily and quickly operated by the athlete.

 

  • They shall be fixed to the track by a number of pins or spikes, arranged to cause the minimum possible damage to the track. The arrangement shall permit the starting blocks to be quickly and easily removed. The number, thickness and length of pins or spikes depend on the track construction. The anchorage shall permit no movement during the actual

 

  • When an athlete uses their own starting blocks, they shall comply with these Rules but otherwise may be of any design or construction, provided that they do not interfere with other

 

  • In competitions held under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition and for any performances submitted for ratification as a World Record under Rules 32 or 34 of the Competition Rules, the starting blocks shall be linked to a World Athletics certified Start Information System. This system is strongly recommended for other

 

Note: In addition, an automatic recall system, within the Rules, may also be used.

 

  • In competitions held under paragraphs 1.1 to 1.6 of the International Competition definition, athletes shall use starting blocks provided by the Organisers of the competition. In other competitions on synthetic surfaced tracks the Organisers may insist that only starting blocks provided by them may be

 

This Rule should also be interpreted so that:

 

  • no part of the frame or footplates can overlap a start line;

 

  • the frame only (but not any part of the footplate) can extend into the outer lane provided there is no obstruction. This reflects the long standing practice of athletes at the start of races on a bend placing their blocks at an angle to run the most direct line after the

 

The use of lights, by deaf or hearing impaired athletes only, at the start of races is allowed and is not considered assistance. It should however be the obligation of the athlete or their team for the financing and supply of such equipment and its compatibility with the start system in use, unless at a particular meeting where there is an appointed technical partner who can provide it.

 

16.             (Rule 162) The Start

 

  • The start of a race shall be denoted by a white line 50mm wide. In all races not run in lanes, the start line shall be curved, so that all the athletes start the same distance from the finish. Starting positions in events at all distances shall be numbered from left to right, facing the direction of

 

Note (i): In the case of events starting outside the stadium, the start line may be up to 0.30m in width and may be of any colour contrasting distinctively with the surface of the start area.

 

Note (ii): The 1500m start line, or any other curved start line, may be extended out from the outside lane to the extent that the same synthetic surface is available.

 

It is anticipated that, in order to efficiently complete the start procedures and for larger meetings to appropriately introduce the competitors in the race the athletes, when assembled, should be standing and facing in the direction of the race.

 

  • At all International Competitions, except as noted below, the commands of the Starter shall be given in their own language, in English or in

 

  • In races up to and including 400m (including 4 × 200m, the Medley Relay as defined in Rule 24.1 of the Technical Rules and 4 × 400m), the commands shall be “On your marks” and “Set”.

 

  • In races longer  than  400m  (except  4  ×  200m,  the  Medley  Relay  and 4 × 400m), the command shall be “On your marks”.

 

  • In any race when, under Rule 16.5 of the Technical Rules, the Starter is not satisfied that all is ready for the start to proceed after the athletes are on their marks or they otherwise abort the start, the command shall be “Stand up”.

 

All races shall normally be started by the report of the Starter’s gun held upwards.

 

Note: In competitions under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.9 of the International Competition definition, the commands of the Starter shall be given in English only.

 

The Starter must not initiate the start procedures before they are sure that the relevant timing team is ready as well as the Judges at the finish and in races up to and including 200m, the Wind Gauge Operator. The communication process between the start and the  finish area and the timing team varies according to the level of the competition. In events organised under paragraphs 1.1 to 1.6 of the International Competition definition and many other high level meetings there is invariably a service company responsible for the electronic timing and the Start Information System. In this case, there will be technicians who are responsible for communication. In other competitions a variety of communication systems are used – radios, phones, or by using flags or flashing lights.

 

  • In races up to and including 400m (including the first leg of 4 × 200m, the Medley Relay and 4 × 400m), a crouch start and the use of starting blocks are compulsory. After the “On your marks” command, an athlete shall approach the start line, assume a position completely within their allocated lane and behind the start line. An athlete shall not touch either the start line or the ground in front of it with their hands or their feet when on their mark. Both hands and at least one knee shall be in contact with the ground and both feet in contact with the foot plates of the starting blocks. At the “Set” command, an athlete shall immediately rise to their final starting position retaining the contact of the hands with the ground and of the feet with the foot plates of the blocks. Once the Starter is satisfied that all athletes are steady in the “Set” position, the gun shall be

 

In all races using a crouch start, as soon as they are steady in their blocks, the Starter shall raise their arm in which they hold the gun, then they shall say “Set“. They shall wait then for all the athletes to be steady and shall then fire the gun.

 

The Starter must not raise their arm too early, especially when manual Timekeepers are being used. They are advised to raise their arm only when they feel they are about to give the command “Set“.

 

There is no rule that enables to determine the time that elapses between the commands “On your marks“ and “Set“ on one hand, and on the other hand, between the command “Set“ and the gun shot. The Starter shall let the athletes go once they are all motionless in the correct starting position. Which means that they may have, for certain starts, to fire the gun quite quickly, but on the other hand, they may also have to wait longer in order to make sure that they are all steady in their starting position.

 

  • In races longer than 400m (except 4 × 200m, the Medley Relay and 4 × 400m), all starts shall be made from a standing position. After the “On your marks” command, an athlete shall approach the start line and assume a starting position behind the start line (completely within their allocated lane in races started in lanes). An athlete shall not touch any part of the ground with their hand or hands and/or the start line or the ground in front of it with their feet when on their mark. Once the Starter is satisfied that all athletes are steady in the correct starting position, the gun shall be

 

  • On the command “On your marks” or “Set”, as the case may be, all athletes shall, at once and without delay, assume their full and final starting position. If, for any reason, the Starter is not satisfied that all is ready for the start to proceed after the athletes are on their marks, they shall order all athletes to withdraw from their marks and the Starter’s Assistants shall assemble them again (See also Rule 23 of the Competition Rules).

 

Where an athlete in the judgement of the Starter,

 

  • after the command “On your marks” or “Set”, and before the report of the gun, causes the start to be aborted, for instance by raising a hand and/or standing or sitting up in the case of a crouch start, without a valid reason, (such reason to be evaluated by the relevant Referee); or

 

  • fails to comply with the commands “On your marks“ or “Set“ as appropriate, or does not place themselves in their final starting position at once and without delay; or

 

  • after the command “On your marks“ or “Set” disturbs other athletes in the race through sound, movement or otherwise,

 

the Starter shall abort the start.

 

The Referee may warn the athlete for improper conduct (disqualify in case of a second infringement of the Rule during the same competition), according to Rule 18.5 of the Competition Rules and Rule 7.2 of the Technical Rules. A green card shall not be shown. However, when an extraneous reason was considered to be the cause for aborting the start, or the Referee does not agree with the Starter’s decision, a green card shall be shown to all the athletes to indicate that a false start was not committed by any athlete.

 

The division of the start rules into disciplinary matters (under Rule 16.5 of the Technical Rules) and false starts (Rules 16.7 and 16.8 of the Technical Rules) ensures that the whole field was not penalised for the actions of a single athlete. It is important in order to maintain the integrity of the intention of this division that Starters and Referees are as diligent in the application of Rule 16.5 of the Technical Rules as well as in detecting false starts.

 

Such conduct, whether wilful or unintentional perhaps through nervousness should cause Rule 16.5 of the Technical Rules to be applied although where the Starter is of the view that

 

it was unintentional, the application of Rule 16.2.3 of the Technical Rules only may be appropriate.

 

Conversely, there will be instances in which an athlete is entitled to request a delay of the start for legitimate reasons. It is therefore vital that the Start Referee (in particular) pays attention to the environment and conditions surrounding the start, especially in relation to factors of which the Starter may not be aware because they are focussing on preparing themselves for the start and/or wearing headphones.

 

In all such cases the Starter and Referee must act reasonably and efficiently and clearly indicate their decisions. If appropriate the reasons for the decisions can be announced to the athletes in the race and if possible or desirable also to the announcers, television team etc. through the communication network.

 

A green card shall not be shown in any case when a yellow or red card has been issued.

 

False Start

 

  • When a World Athletics certified Start Information System is in use, the Starter and/or an assigned Recaller shall wear headphones in order to clearly hear the acoustic signal emitted when the System indicates a possible false start (i.e. when the reaction time is less than 0.100 second). As soon as the Starter and/or assigned Recaller hears the acoustic signal, and if the gun was fired, there shall be a recall and the Starter shall immediately examine the reaction times and other available information from the Start Information System in order to confirm which, if any, athlete(s) is/are responsible for the

 

Note: When a World Athletics certified Start Information System is in operation, the evidence of this equipment shall be used as a resource by the relevant officials to assist in making a correct decision.

 

  • An athlete, after assuming a full and final starting position, shall not commence their start until after receiving the report of the gun. If, in the judgement of the Starter (including under Rule 22.6 of the Competition Rules), they do so any earlier, it shall be a false start. The commencement of the start is defined:

 

  • in the case of a crouch start, as any motion by an athlete that includes or results in one or both feet losing contact with the foot plate(s) of the starting blocks or one or both hands losing contact with the ground; and

 

  • In the case of a standing start, as any motion that results in one or both feet losing contact with the

 

If the Starter determines that prior to receiving the report of the gun an athlete initiated a movement that was not stopped and continued into the commencement of their start, it shall also be a false start.

 

Note (i): Any other motion by an athlete shall not be considered to be the commencement of their start. Such instances may, if applicable, be subject to a disciplinary warning or disqualification.

 

Note (ii): As athletes starting races in a standing position are more prone to over- balance, if such a movement is considered to be accidental, the start should be regarded as “unsteady”. If an athlete is pushed or jostled over the line before the start, they should not be penalised. Any athlete causing such interference may be

 

subject to a disciplinary warning or disqualification.

 

Generally, no false start should be charged if the athlete has not lost contact with the ground or foot plates. For example, if an athlete moves their hips up, but then moves them down without their hands or feet losing contact with the ground or foot plates at any time, it should not result in a false start. It may be a reason to warn (or disqualify if there has been a previous warning) the athlete for improper conduct under Rule 16.5 of the Technical Rules.

 

However in cases of a “rolling start” where the Starter (or Recaller) is of the opinion that an athlete has effectively anticipated the start through some continuous movement even if they did not move their hands or feet before the gun sounded, the race should be recalled. This can be done by a Starter or Recaller but it will be the Starter who is in the best situation to judge such a case as only they will know the position of their finger on the gun trigger when the athlete began their movement. In these cases where the Starter is sure that the athlete’s movement began before the report of the gun, a false start should be awarded.

 

In accordance with Note (ii) Starters and Referees should avoid being over-zealous in the application of Rule 16.7 of the Technical Rules to those events started from a standing position. Such instances are rare and usually occur unintentionally as it is easier to overbalance from a two-point start. It is not intended that same should be unduly penalised.

 

If such a movement was considered to be accidental, Starters and Referees are encouraged to first consider calling the start “unsteady” and proceed according to Rule 16.2.3 of the Technical Rules. However repeat practices during the same event may entitle the Starter and/or Referee to consider applying either the false start or disciplinary procedures, as might best be applicable in the situation.

 

  • Except in Combined Events, any athlete responsible for a false start shall be disqualified by the

 

For Combined Events, see Rule 39.10.3 of the Technical Rules.

 

Note: In practice, when one or more athletes make a false start, others are inclined to follow and, strictly speaking, any athlete who does so has also made a false start. The Starter should warn or disqualify only such athlete or athletes who, in their opinion, were responsible for the false start. This may result in more than one athlete being warned or disqualified. If the false start is not due to any athlete, no warnings shall be given and a green card shall be shown to all the athletes.

 

  • In case of a false start, the Starter’s Assistants shall proceed as follows:

 

Except in Combined Events, the athlete(s) responsible for the false start shall be disqualified and a red and black (diagonally halved) card shall be raised in front of them.

 

In Combined Events, in case of a first false start, the athlete(s) responsible for the false start shall be warned with a yellow and black (diagonally halved) card raised in front of them. At the same time, all the other athletes taking part in the race shall be warned with the yellow and black card raised in front of them by one or several Starter’s Assistants in order to notify them that anyone committing further false starts will be disqualified. In case of further false starts, the athlete(s) responsible for the false start shall be disqualified and the red and black card shall be raised in front of them.

 

If lane markers that provide for it are being used, then whenever a card is shown to the athlete(s) responsible for the false start, the corresponding indication should be shown on the lane marker(s).

 

It is recommended that the size of the diagonally halved cards be A5 and that they be doubled sided. Note that the corresponding indication on the lane marker(s) may remain yellow and red as previously, in order to avoid unnecessary expense in modifying existing equipment.

 

  • The Starter or any Recaller, who is of the opinion that the start was not a fair one, shall recall the athletes by firing a

 

The reference to a fair start does not relate solely to cases of a false start. This rule should also be interpreted as applying to other situations such as blocks slipping, a foreign object interfering with one or more athletes during a start etc.

 

17.             (Rule 163) The Race

 

  • In races including at least one bend, the direction of running and walking shall be left- hand inside. The lanes shall be numbered with the left-hand inside lane numbered

 

This Rule allows, where conditions permit and the track is properly surveyed, straight events to be conducted in the opposite direction, i.e. right-hand inside.

 

Obstruction

 

  • If an athlete is jostled or obstructed during an event so as to impede their progress, then:

 

  • if the jostling or obstruction is considered unintentional or is caused otherwise than by an athlete, the Referee may, if they are of the opinion that an athlete (or their team) was seriously affected, in accordance with Rule 18.7 of the Competition Rules or Rule 8.4 of the Technical Rules, order that the race (for one, some or all of the athletes) be re-held or allow the affected athlete (or team) to compete in a subsequent round of the event;

 

  • if another athlete is found by the Referee to be responsible for the jostling or obstruction, such athlete (or their team) shall be liable to disqualification from that event. The Referee may, if they are of the opinion that an athlete (or their team) was seriously affected, in accordance with Rule 18.7 of the Competition Rules or Rule 8.4 of the Technical Rules, order that the race (for one, some or all of the athletes) be re-held excluding any disqualified athlete (or team) or allow any affected athlete (or team) (other than any disqualified athlete or team) to compete in a subsequent round of the

 

Note: In cases considered serious enough, Rule 18.5 of the Competition Rules and Rule 7.2 of the Technical Rules may also be applied.

 

In both cases Rules 17.2.1 and 17.2.2 of the Technical Rules, such athlete (or team) should normally have completed the event with bona fide effort.

 

Lane Infringement

 

  • In all races:

 

  • run in lanes, each athlete shall keep within their allocated lane from start to finish. This shall also apply to any portion of a race run in lanes;

 

  • (or any part of races) not run in lanes, an athlete running on a bend, on the outer half of the track as per Rule 17.5.2 of the Technical Rules, or on any curved part of the diversion from the track for the steeplechase water jump, shall not step or run on or inside the kerb or line marking the applicable border (the inside of the track, the outer half of the track, or any curved part of the diversion from the track for the steeplechase water jump).

 

Except as stated in Rule 17.4 of the Technical Rules, if the Referee is satisfied, on the report of a Judge or Umpire or otherwise, that an athlete has infringed this Rule, they or in the case of a relay event, their team shall be disqualified.

 

  • An athlete, or in the case of a relay event, his team, shall not be disqualified if the athlete:

 

  • are pushed or forced by another person to step or run outside their lane or on or inside the kerb or line marking the applicable border, or

 

  • step or run outside their lane in the straight, any straight part of the diversion from the track for the steeplechase water jump or outside the outer line of their lane on the bend,

 

with no material advantage thereby being gained and no other athlete being jostled or obstructed so as to impede their progress. If material advantage is gained, the athlete (or team) shall be disqualified.

 

Note: Material advantage includes improving their position by any means, including removing themselves from a “boxed” position in the race by having stepped or run inside the inside edge of the track.

 

This Note specifically outlaws the practice of an athlete seeking to improve their position in races by moving onto the inside of the track (whether intentionally or after being pushed or jostled there by another athlete) to get out of a boxed position by running on the inside until clear. Whilst normally running on the inside of lane 1 in the straight (as distinct from doing so on the bend) would not lead to mandatory disqualification, the Referee now has the power to disqualify in their discretion if this occurs and the athlete is advantaged even if the initial reason for being there was the result of being pushed or jostled. In such cases the athlete should take immediate steps to return to the track without seeking or gaining any advantage.

 

  • In competitions held under paragraph 1.1 of the International Competition definition and where suitable in other competitions:

 

  • the 800m event shall be run in lanes as far as the nearer edge of the breakline where athletes may leave their respective lanes. The breakline shall be an arced line marked after the first bend, 50mm wide, across all lanes other than lane 1. To assist athletes identify the breakline, small cones, prisms or other suitable markers, preferably of different colour from the breakline and the lane lines, shall be placed on the lane lines immediately before the intersection of the lane lines and the

 

Note: In competitions under paragraphs 1.4 and 1.8 of the International Competition definition, the participating teams may agree not to use lanes.

 

  • when there are more than 12 athletes in a race over 1000m, 2000m, 3000m, (optionally, 3000m Steeplechase with inside water jump), 5000m or 10,000m, they may be divided into two groups with one group of approximately two thirds of the athletes on the regular arced start line and the other group on a separate arced start line marked across the outer half of the track. The other group shall run as far as the end of the first bend of the race on the outer half of the track, which shall be marked by cones, flags or temporary kerbing as described in Rule 14.1 of the Technical Rules.

 

The separate arced start line shall be positioned in such a way that all the athletes shall run the same distance.

 

The breakline for 800m indicates where the athletes in the outer group in 2000m and 10,000m may join the athletes using regular start.

 

For group starts in 1000m, 3000m, (optionally 3000m steeplechase with inside water jump) and 5000m, the track shall be marked at the beginning of the finish straight to indicate where athletes starting in the outer group may join the athletes using the regular start. This mark may be a 50mm × 50mm mark on the line between lanes 4 and 5 (lanes 3 and 4 in a six-lane track) immediately before which a cone or flag is placed until the two groups converge.

 

  • If an athlete does not follow this Rule they, or in the case of a relay their team, shall be

 

The markers used on the  breakline  for  the  800m  and  applicable  relays  should  be  50mm × 50mm and no more than 0.15m high.

 

For clarity when complying with Rule 25.4 of the Competition Rules when stating the Rule under which an athlete is disqualified:

 

  • if an athlete steps on or inside the line then state Rule 17.3 of the Technical Rules

 

  • if an athlete crosses over before the breakline or split start marker then state Rule 17.5 of the Technical

 

Leaving the Track

 

  • An athlete, after voluntarily leaving the track, except in compliance with Rule 24.6.3 of the Technical Rules, shall not be allowed to continue in the race and shall be recorded as not finishing the event. Should the athlete attempt to re-enter the race, they shall be disqualified by the

 

Check-Marks

 

  • Except as stated in Rule 24.4 of the Technical Rules, when all or the first portion of a Relay Race is being run in lanes, athletes may not make check-marks or place objects on or alongside the running track for their assistance. The Judges shall direct

 

the relevant athlete to adapt or remove any marks or objects not complying with this Rule. If they do not, the Judges shall remove them.

 

Note: Serious cases may further be dealt with under Rule 18.5 of the Competition Rules and Rule 7.2 of the Technical Rules.

 

Wind Measurement

 

  • All wind gauge equipment shall be manufactured and calibrated according to international standards. The accuracy of the measuring equipment used in the competition shall have been verified by an appropriate organisation accredited by the national measurement

 

  • Non-mechanical wind gauges shall be used at all International Competitions under paragraphs 1.1 to 1.8 of the International Competition definition and for any performance submitted for ratification as a World

 

A mechanical wind gauge should have appropriate protection to reduce the impact of any crosswind. Where tubes are used, their length on either side of the measuring device should be at least twice the diameter of the tube.

 

  • The Track Referee shall ensure that the wind gauge for Track Events is placed beside the straight, adjacent to lane 1, 50m from the finish line. The measuring plane shall be positioned 1.22m ± 0.05m high and not more than 2m away from the

 

  • The wind gauge may be started and stopped automatically and/or remotely, and the information conveyed directly to the competition

 

  • The periods for which the wind velocity shall be measured from the flash / smoke of the Starter’s gun are as follows:

 

 Seconds
100m10
100m Hurdles13
110m Hurdles13

 

In the 200m event, the wind velocity shall normally be measured for a period of 10 seconds commencing when the first athlete enters the straight.

 

  • The wind gauge shall be read in metres per second, rounded to the next higher tenth of a metre per second, unless the second decimal is zero, in the positive direction (that is, a reading of +2.03 metres per second shall be recorded as +2.1; a reading of

-2.03 metres per second shall be recorded as -2.0). Gauges that produce digital readings expressed in tenths of metres per second shall be constructed so as to comply with this Rule.

 

Indication of Intermediate Times

 

  • Intermediate times and preliminary winning times may be officially announced and/or displayed. Otherwise, such times must not be communicated to the athletes by persons in the competition area without the prior approval of the appropriate Referee who may authorise or appoint no more than one person to call times at each of no more than two agreed timing

 

Athletes who receive intermediate times that have been communicated in violation of this Rule shall be considered to have received assistance and shall be subject to the provisions of Rule 6.2 of the Technical Rules.

 

Note: The competition area, which normally also has a physical barrier, is defined for this purpose as the area where the competition is being staged and which has an access restricted to the competing athletes and personnel authorised in accordance with the relevant Rules and Regulations.

 

Drinking / Sponging

 

  • Drinking / Sponging, as follows:

 

  • In Track Events of 5000m or longer, the Organisers may provide water and sponges to athletes if weather conditions warrant such

 

  • In Track Events longer than 10,000m, refreshments, water and sponging stations shall be provided. Refreshments may be provided either by the Organisers or the athlete and shall be placed so that they are easily accessible to, or may be put by authorised persons into the hands of, the athletes. Refreshments provided by the athletes shall be kept under the supervision of officials designated by the Organisers from the time that the refreshments are lodged by the athletes or their representatives. Those officials shall ensure that the refreshments are not altered or tampered with in any

 

  • An athlete may, at any time, carry water or refreshment by hand or attached to their body provided it was carried from the start or collected or received at an official

 

  • An athlete who receives or collects refreshment or water from a place other than the official stations, except where provided for medical reasons from or under the direction of race officials, or takes the refreshment of another athlete, should, for a first such offence, be warned by the Referee normally by showing a yellow card. For a second offence, the Referee shall disqualify the athlete, normally by showing a red card. The athlete shall then immediately leave the

 

Note: An athlete may receive from or pass to another athlete refreshment, water or sponges provided it was carried from the start or collected or received at an official station. However, any continuous support from an athlete to one or more others in such a way may be regarded as unfair assistance and warnings and/or disqualifications as outlined above may be applied.

 

18.             (Rule 164) The Finish

 

  • The finish of a race shall be denoted by a white line 50mm

 

Note: In the case of events finishing outside the stadium, the finish line may be up to 0.30m in width and may be of any colour contrasting distinctively with the surface of the finish area.

 

  • The athletes shall be placed in the order in which any part of their bodies (i.e. torso, as distinguished from the head, neck, arms, legs, hands or feet) reaches the vertical plane of the nearer edge of the finish line as defined

 

  • In any race decided on the basis of the distance covered in a fixed period of time, the Starter shall fire the gun exactly one minute before the end of the race to warn athletes and Judges that the race is nearing its end. The Starter shall be directed by the Chief Timekeeper and, at exactly the appropriate time after the start, they shall signal the end of the race by again firing the gun. At the moment the gun is fired to signal the end of the race, the Judges appointed for that purpose shall mark the exact spot where each athlete touched the track for the last time before or simultaneously with the firing of the

 

The distance achieved shall be measured to the nearest metre behind this mark. At least one Judge shall be assigned to each athlete before the start of the race for the purpose of marking the distance achieved.

 

Guidelines for the conduct of the One Hour Race may be downloaded from the World Athletics website.

 

19.             (Rule 165) Timing and Photo Finish

 

  • Three methods of timekeeping shall be recognised as official:

 

  • Hand Timing;

 

  • Fully Automatic Timing obtained from a Photo Finish System;

 

  • Timing provided by a Transponder System for competitions held under Rules 54 (races not held completely in the stadium), 55, 56, and 57 of the Technical Rules

 

  • Under Rules 19.1.1 and 19.1.2 of the Technical Rules, the time shall be taken to the moment at which any part of the body of an athlete (i.e. torso, as distinguished from the head, neck, arms, legs, hands or feet) reaches the vertical plane of the nearer edge of the finish

 

  • Times for all finishers shall be recorded. In addition, whenever possible, lap times in races of 800m and over and intermediate times at every 1000m in races of 3000m and over shall be

 

Hand Timing

 

  • The Timekeepers shall be in line with the finish and, where possible, they should be placed at least 5m from the outside lane of the track. In order that they may all have a good view of the finish line, an elevated stand should be

 

  • Timekeepers shall use manually operated electronic timers with digital readouts. All such timing devices are termed “watches” for the purpose of the

 

  • The lap and intermediate times as per Rule 19.3 of the Technical Rules shall be recorded either, by designated members of the timekeeping team using watches capable of taking more than one time, or by additional Timekeepers, or by transponders.

 

  • The time shall be taken from the flash / smoke of the

 

  • Three official Timekeepers (one of whom shall be the Chief Timekeeper) and one or two additional Timekeepers shall time the winner of every event and any performances for record purposes. (For Combined Events, see Rule 39.8.2 of the Technical Rules.) The times recorded by the additional Timekeepers’ watches shall not be considered unless one or more of the official Timekeepers’ watches fail to record the time correctly, in which case the additional Timekeepers shall be called upon, in such order as has been decided previously, so that in all the races, three watches should have recorded the official winning

 

  • Each Timekeeper shall act independently and without showing their watch to, or discussing their time with, any other person, shall enter their time on the official form and, after signing it, hand it to the Chief Timekeeper who may examine the watches to verify the reported

 

  • For all hand-timed races, times shall be read and recorded as follows:

 

  • For races on the track, unless the time is an exact 0.1 second, the time shall be converted and recorded to the next longer 0.1 second, e.g. 10.11 shall be recorded as 2.

 

  • For races partly or entirely outside the stadium, unless the time is an exact whole second, the time shall be converted and recorded to the next longer whole second, e.g. 2:09:44.3 shall be recorded as 2:09:45.

 

  • If, after converting as indicated above, two of the three watches agree and the third disagrees, the time recorded by the two shall be the official time. If all three watches disagree, the middle time shall be official. If only two times are available and they disagree, the longer time shall be

 

  • The Chief Timekeeper, acting in accordance with the Rules mentioned above, shall decide the official time for each athlete and provide the results to the Competition Secretary for

 

Fully Automatic Timing and Photo Finish System The System

  • A Fully Automatic Timing and Photo Finish System must have been tested, and have a certificate of accuracy issued within 4 years of the competition, including the following:

 

  • The System must record the finish through a camera positioned in the extension of the finish line, producing a composite

 

  1. For competitions under paragraph 1.1 of the International Competition definition, this composite image must be composed of at least 1000 images per

 

  1. For other competitions, this composite image must be composed of at least 100 images per

 

In each case, the image must be synchronised with a uniformly marked time-scale graduated in 0.01 seconds.

 

  • The System shall be started automatically by the Starter’s signal, so that the overall delay between the report from the muzzle or its equivalent visual

 

indication and the start of the timing system is constant and equal to or less than 0.001 second.

 

  • In order to confirm that the camera is correctly aligned and to facilitate the reading of the Photo Finish image, the intersection of the lane lines and the finish line shall be coloured black in a suitable design. Any such design must be solely confined to the intersection, for no more than 20mm beyond, and not extended before, the leading edge of the finish line. Similar black marks may be placed on each side of the intersection of an appropriate lane line and the finish line to further facilitate

 

  • The placing of the athletes shall be identified from the image by means of a cursor with its reading line guaranteed to be perpendicular to the time

 

  • The System must automatically determine and record the finish times of the athletes and must be able to produce a printed image which shows the time of any athlete. Additionally, the system shall provide a tabular overview which shows the time or other result of every athlete. Subsequent changes of automatically determined values and manual input of values (such as start time, finish time), shall be indicated by the system automatically in the time scale of the printed image and the tabular

 

  • A system which operates automatically at the finish, but not at the start, shall be considered to produce Hand Times provided that the system was started in accordance with Rule 19.7 of the Technical Rules or with equivalent accuracy. The image may be used as a valid support in order to determine placings and adjust time intervals between

 

Note: If the timing mechanism is not started by the Starter’s signal, the time-scale on the image shall indicate this fact automatically.

 

  • A system, which operates automatically at the start but not at the finish, shall be considered to produce neither Hand nor Fully Automatic Times and shall not therefore be used to obtain official

 

Operation

 

  • The Chief Photo Finish Judge shall be responsible for the functioning of the System. Before the start of the competition, they will meet the technical staff involved and familiarise themselves with the equipment, checking all applicable

 

In cooperation with the Track Referee and the Starter, they shall initiate a zero control test, before the beginning of each session, to ensure that the equipment is started automatically by the Starter’s signal within the limit identified in Rule 19.13.2 of the Technical Rules (i.e. equal to or less than 0.001 second).

 

They shall supervise the testing of the equipment and ensure that the camera(s) is (are) correctly aligned.

 

  • There should be at least two photo finish cameras in action, one from each side. Preferably, these timing systems should be technically independent, i.e. with different power supplies and recording and relaying of the Starter’s signal, by separate equipment and

 

Note: Where two or more Photo Finish cameras are used, one should be designated as official by the Technical Delegate(s) (or International Photo Finish Judge where appointed) before the start of the competition. The times and places from the images

 

of the other camera(s) should not be considered unless there is reason to doubt the accuracy of the official camera or if there is need to use the supplementary images to resolve uncertainties in the finishing order (i.e. athletes wholly or partially obscured on the image from the official camera).

 

  • In conjunction with an adequate number of assistants, the Chief Photo Finish Judge shall determine the placing of the athletes and, as a consequence, their official times. They shall ensure that these results are correctly entered in or transferred to the competition results system and conveyed to the Competition

 

At major events where the technology is available, the photo finish image is often immediately provided on the video board or published on the internet. It has become the practice to provide athletes, or persons on their behalf, who are considering making a protest or appeal the opportunity to see the photo, in order to avoid time being spent on any unnecessary protests or appeals.

 

  • Times from the Photo Finish System shall be regarded as official unless for any reason the appropriate official decides that they obviously must be inaccurate. If such is the case, the times of the back-up Timekeepers, if possible adjusted based on information on time intervals obtained from the Photo Finish image, shall be official. Such back-up Timekeepers must be appointed where any possibility exists of failure of the timing

 

  • Times shall be read and recorded from the Photo Finish image as follows:

 

  • For all races up to and including 10,000m, unless the time is an exact 0.01 second, the time shall be converted and recorded to the next longer 0.01 second, e.g. 26:17.533 shall be recorded as 26:17.54.

 

  • For all races on the track longer than 10,000m, all times not ending in two zeroes shall be converted and recorded to the next longer 0.1 second, e.g. 59:26.322 shall be recorded as 59:26.4.

 

  • For all races held partly or entirely outside the stadium, all times not ending in three zeroes shall be converted and recorded to the next longer whole second, e.g. 2:09:44.322 shall be recorded as 2:09:45.

 

Transponder System

 

  • The use of Transponder Timing Systems complying with the Rules in events held under Rules 54 (races not held completely in the stadium), 55, 56, and 57 of the Technical Rules is permitted provided that:

 

  • None of the equipment used at the start, along the course or at the finish line constitutes a significant obstacle or barrier to the progress of an

 

  • The weight of the transponder and its housing carried or worn by the athlete is not

 

  • The System is started by the Starter’s gun or synchronised with the start signal.

 

  • The System requires no action by an athlete during the competition, at the finish or at any stage in the result

 

  • For all races, all times not ending in zero shall be converted and recorded to the next longer whole second, e.g. 2:09:44.3 shall be recorded as 2:09:45.

 

Note: The official time shall be the time elapsed between the firing of the starting gun (or the synchronised start signal) and the athlete reaching the finish line. However, the time elapsed between an athlete crossing the start line and the finish line can be made known to them, but will not be considered an official time.

 

  • Whilst the determination of the finishing order and times may be considered official, Rules 18.2 and 19.2 of the Technical Rules must be applied where required.

 

Note: It is recommended that Judges and/or video recording(s) also be provided to assist in determining the finishing order and the identification of athletes.

 

It is important that when using transponder timing that appropriate back-up systems are put in place by the Organisers, especially to respect Rule 19.24.6 of the Technical Rules. The provision of back-up Timekeepers, and more importantly Finish Judges to adjudicate on close finishes (which might not be differentiated by chip timing) is strongly recommended.

 

  • The Chief Transponder Timing Judge shall be responsible for the functioning of the System. Before the start of the competition, they will meet the technical staff involved and familiarise themselves with the equipment, checking all applicable settings. They shall supervise the testing of the equipment and ensure that the passing of the transponder over the finish line will record the athlete’s finish time. In conjunction with the Referee, they shall ensure that provision is made for the application, when necessary, of Rule 19.24.6 of the Technical

 

20.             (Rule 166) Seedings, Draws and Qualification in Track Events Rounds and Heats

  • Qualification Rounds shall be held in Track Events in which the number of athletes is too large to allow the competition to be conducted satisfactorily in a single round (final). Where Qualification Rounds are held, all athletes must compete in, and qualify through, all such rounds except that the relevant governing body may, for one or more events, authorise the conduct of additional preliminary qualification round(s) either at the same competition or at one or more earlier competition(s) to determine some or all of the athletes who shall be entitled to participate and in which round of the competition. Such procedure and any other means (such as achieving entry standards during a specified period, by specified placing in a designated competition or by specified rankings) by which an athlete is entitled to participate, and in which round of the competition, shall be set out in the regulations for each

 

Note: See also Rule 8.4.3 of the Technical Rules.

 

  • The Qualification Rounds for Track Events shall be arranged as follows by the appointed Technical Delegates. If no Technical Delegates have been appointed, they shall be arranged by the

 

  • The regulations for each competition should include tables which shall, in the absence of extraordinary circumstances, be used to determine the

 

number of rounds, the number of heats in each round and the qualification procedure, i.e. those to advance by place (P) and time (T). Such information shall also be provided for any preliminary qualifications.

 

Note: Tables which may be used in the absence of any provision in applicable regulations or other determination by the Organisers are published on the World Athletics website.

 

  • Whenever possible, representatives of each Member or team and the best performed athletes shall be placed in different heats in all Qualification Rounds of the competition. In applying this Rule after the first round, the required exchanges of athletes between heats should, to the extent possible, be made between athletes seeded in the same “group of lanes” according to Rule 20.4.2 of the Technical

 

  • When heats are being arranged, as much information as possible about the performances of all athletes should be considered and the heats drawn so that, normally, the best performed athletes reach the

 

The Qualification Rounds should determine in the best possible way the athletes who will take part in the next round and eventually the final. This includes avoiding where possible the clashing of the best performed athletes (determined generally on performance in the qualification period but also taking into account such matters as outstanding recent career records) in the same heats as also applies to athletes from the same Member or team.

 

For major competitions, at least, the basis of the seeding should be the best times achieved by each athlete in valid conditions (including with wind readings for the relevant events) during the pre-determined period. This period may be specified in the Technical Regulations or in the document setting out the entry conditions and standards for the competition. Where there is no such specification, then “Season Best” should be used unless the Technical Delegate(s) or the Organisers decide that for one, some or all events the circumstances justify an alternate period or other criteria being applied.

 

Such factors as performances achieved during training or tests, even if they appeared to look like competition or notions about what an athlete might “be worth” but has never achieved, should not be taken into account in seeding.

 

The requirements of the Rule in relation to the “best performed athletes” does require some deviation from the strict protocol outlined above. For example, an athlete who might normally be seeded in a high position might not have any, or only a poor, valid performance in the predetermined period (through injury, illness, ineligibility or in the case of indoor meetings only have outdoor results). Whilst they would normally be placed lower or at the bottom of  the seeding list, adjustment should be considered by the Technical Delegate(s). Similar principles should be applied to avoid a clash in a Qualification Round between athletes considered to be the favourites to place highly in the event if the results of the previous round would strictly dictate that they should be in the same heat. At this same time any adjustments to ensure as much as possible that athletes from the same nation or team are in different heats should also be made.

 

In all such cases, adjustments of the seeding should be made after the initial allocation to the heats but before any draw is made for the lanes. After these changes are made, a final check should be made to ensure that the heats are as equal as possible.

 

In applying these principles exchanges of athletes should be made:

 

  1. in the first round, between athletes with a similar ranking on the list of best valid performances during the pre-determined period; and
  2. in subsequent rounds, between athletes seeded in the same “group of lanes” according to Rule 20.4.2 of the Technical

 

Following these principles is more important in competitions in which the number of rounds has been reduced in some events – making accurate and well considered seeding vital to achieving both a fair and an athletically appealing outcome.

 

For lower level competitions, the Technical Delegate(s) or the Organisers may consider use different principles to achieve a similar final outcome.

 

Ranking and Composition of Heats

 

  • Ranking and Composition of Heats, as follows:

 

  • For the first round, the athletes shall be ranked with the seeding determined from the relevant list of valid performances achieved during the predetermined

 

  • After the first round:

 

  1. for events of 100m to 400m inclusive, and relays up to and including 4 × 400m, seeding shall be based upon placings and times of each previous round. For this purpose, athletes shall be ranked as follows:

 

Fastest heat winner 2nd fastest heat winner

3rd fastest heat winner, etc. Fastest 2nd place

2nd fastest 2nd place

 

3rd fastest 2nd place, etc. (Concluding with)

Fastest time qualifier 2nd fastest time qualifier

3rd fastest time qualifier, etc.

 

  1. for other events, the original performance lists shall continue to be used for seeding, modified only by improvements in performances achieved during the earlier round(s).

 

  • In each case the athletes shall then be placed in heats in the order of seeding in a zigzag distribution, e.g. three heats will consist of the following seedings:

 

A1671213181924
B2581114172023
C3491015162122

 

  • In each case, the order in which heats are to be run shall be determined by draw after the composition of the heats has been

 

For the first round in order to reduce the number of heats required, it is acceptable and normal for additional available lanes (for example a ninth lane on a straight or oval track) to be used in races up to and including 400m and to have more than one athlete in a lane at the start of an 800m race.

 

The random draw to determine the order in which the heats are conducted is based on fairness. In middle and long distance races the athletes running in the last heat will know as far as qualifying by times the performance they have to realise in order to qualify. Even with the shorter races there is a fairness aspect as weather conditions can change (rain suddenly falling or an alteration in wind strength or direction). Fairness dictates that order be determined by chance.

 

Draw for Lanes

 

  • For events 100m to 800m inclusive, and relays up to and including 4 × 400m, where there are several successive rounds of a race, lanes will be drawn as follows:

 

  • For the first round and any additional preliminary qualification round as per Rule 20.1 of the Technical Rules, the lane order shall be drawn by

 

  • After the first round, athletes shall be ranked after each round in accordance with the procedure shown in Rule 20.3.2(a) or, in the case of 800m, 20.3.2(b) of the Technical

 

Three draws for lanes will then be made:

 

  1. one for the four highest ranked athletes or teams to determine placings in lanes 3, 4, 5 and 6;

 

  1. another for the fifth and sixth ranked athletes or teams to determine placings in lanes 7 and 8, and

 

  1. another for the two lowest ranked athletes or teams to determine placings in lanes 1 and

 

Note: When there are fewer or more than 8 lanes, the above system with the necessary modifications should be followed.

 

Note (i): In competitions under paragraphs 1.4 to 1.10 of the International Competition definition, the 800m event may be run with one or two athletes in each lane, or with group start behind an arced line. In competitions under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, this should normally be applied only in the first round, unless because of ties or advancement by the Referee

 

or the Jury of Appeal, there are more athletes in a race of a subsequent round than were anticipated.

 

Note (ii): In any 800 metres race, including a final, where for any reason there are more athletes competing than lanes available, the Technical Delegate(s) shall determine in which lanes more than one athlete will be drawn.

 

Note (iii): When there are more lanes than athletes, the inside lane(s) should always remain free.

 

With regard to Note (ii), there is no exact specification as to how the Technical Delegates should act as the situations which may give rise to it may vary greatly. However, this issue only affects the running of the first bend of the race and is not as important as the allocation of lanes in a shorter race. Technical Delegate(s) are advised to place the additional athlete(s) in the lane(s) where the “double-up” will cause least inconvenience – usually the outer lanes so that the athletes are not running around a tighter bend together.

 

As to Note (iii), where a stadium has more than eight lanes available, the Technical Delegate(s) (or if none the Organisers) should decide in advance which lanes are to be used for this purpose. For example, in the case of a nine-lane oval track, lane one would not be used in cases where less than nine athletes are taking part in a race. Consequently, for the purposes of Rule 20.4 of the Technical Rules, lane 2 is regarded as lane 1 and so on.

 

  • In competitions under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, for events longer than 800m, relays longer than 4 × 400m and any event where only a single round (final) is required, lanes / starting positions shall be drawn by

 

  • Where it is decided to conduct a series of races in an event rather than rounds and finals, the regulations for the competition shall set out all relevant considerations including seedings and draws and the method by which the final results will be determined.

 

  • An athlete shall not be allowed to compete in a heat or lane other than the one in which their name appears, except in circumstances which, in the opinion of the Technical Delegate(s) or the Referee, justify an

 

Progression

 

  • In all Qualification Rounds, the tables should, where practicable, allow at least the first and second places in each heat to qualify for the next round and it is recommended that, where possible, at least three in each heat should

 

Except where Rule 21 of the Technical Rules applies, any other athletes may qualify by place or by time according to Rule 20.2 of the Technical Rules, the applicable Technical Regulations, or as determined by the Technical Delegate(s). When athletes are qualified according to their times, only one system of timing may be applied.

 

Note: In races longer than 800 metres where rounds are conducted, it is recommended that only a small number of athletes qualify by time.

 

Where tables are prescribed in the regulations for a competition it is usual that the principle set out in Rule 20.8 of the Technical Rules will have been incorporated. Where not, the

 

Technical Delegates or Organisers should follow same when establishing the progression table to be used.

 

There will however be occasions when Rule 21 of the Technical Rules may cause a variation to be applied, particularly where there is a tie for the last qualifying position based on place. In such cases, it may be necessary for one less athlete to progress on time. In circumstances where there are sufficient additional lanes available, or in the case of the 800m (where a lane at the start may be used for more than one athlete) or a non-laned race, the Technical Delegate(s) may decide to progress an additional athlete(s).

 

Because of the provision within Rule 20.8 of the Technical Rules that for time qualification only one system of timing may be applied it is important for back-up timing systems to be available for preliminary rounds in case the primary system (usually photo finish) fails. In the event that only times from different timing systems are available for two or more heats, the Technical Delegates in conjunction with the Track Referee should determine, within the circumstances of the particular competition, the fairest method for determining those athletes who should proceed to the next round. Where additional lanes are available, it is recommended that this option be considered first.

 

One Day Meetings

 

  • In competitions held under paragraphs 1.5, 1.9 and 1.10 of the International Competition definition athletes may be seeded, ranked and/or allocated to lanes in accordance with the applicable regulations for the competition or any other method determined by the Organisers but preferably notified to the athletes and their representatives in

 

In one day meetings, if there is only a “final” round but with more than one race, the races should be arranged according to any applicable regulations for the meeting or the series of meetings of which it is a part. If there are none then it is usual for allocation of athletes to the various “races” to be undertaken by the Organisers or if requested by the appointed Technical Delegate(s).

 

Similar considerations apply to how the final ranking of the athletes in such events will be made. In some meetings the “race(s)” other than the main race are regarded as separate races and are not considered for the overall ranking but in others the results of more than one race are “combined” to give the overall ranking. It is highly advisable to ensure that whichever is to apply for the competition is also notified to the participants in advance as it may affect prizes and other considerations.

 

Minimum Times between Rounds

 

  • The following minimum times must be allowed, when practicable, between the last heat of any round and the first heat of a subsequent round or final:

 

Up to and including 200m                                                              45 minutes Over 200m up to and including 1000m                                                              90 minutes

Over 1000m                                                Not on the same day

 

21.             (Rule 167) Ties

 

  • If the Judges or the Photo Finish Judges are unable to separate the athletes for any place according to Rules 18.2, 19.17, 19.21 or 19.24 of the Technical Rules (as may be applicable), it shall be determined to be a tie and the tie shall

 

Tie for ranking position (according to Rule 20.3.2 of the Technical Rules)

 

  • If there is a tie for any ranking position under Rule 20.3.2 of the Technical Rules, the Chief Photo Finish Judge shall consider the actual times recorded by the athletes to

0.001 second and if it is equal, it shall be determined to be a tie and lots shall be drawn to determine the higher ranking position.

 

Tie for last qualifying position based on place

 

  • If after the application of Rule 21.1 of the Technical Rules, there is a tie for a last qualifying position based on place, if there are lanes or positions available (including lane sharing in 800m races) the tying athletes shall be placed in the next round. If that is not practicable lots shall be drawn to determine which athlete(s) shall be placed in the next

 

  • Where qualifying for the next round is based on place and time (e.g., the first three in each of two heats plus the next two fastest), and there is a tie for the last qualifying position based on place, placing the tied athletes in the next round shall reduce the number of athletes qualifying based on

 

Tie for last qualifying position based on time

 

  • If there is a tie for a last qualifying position based on time, the Chief Photo Finish Judge shall consider the actual times recorded by the athletes to 0.001 second and if it is equal, it shall be determined to be a tie. If there are lanes or positions available (including lane sharing in 800m races) the tying athletes shall be placed in the next round. If that is not practicable lots shall be drawn to determine which athlete(s) shall be placed in the next

 

22.             (Rule 168) Hurdle Races

 

  • The standard distances shall be:

 

Men, U20 Men and U18 Men:                                                                 110m, 400m Women, U20 Women and U18Women:                                                                 100m, 400m

There shall be ten flights of hurdles in each lane, set out in accordance with the following table:

 

Men, U20 Men and U18 Men

 

Distance of raceDistance from start line to first hurdleDistance between hurdlesDistance from last hurdle to finish line
110m13.72m9.14m14.02m
400m45.00m35.00m40.00m
 

Women, U20 Women and U18 Women

 

Distance of race

 

Distance from start line to first hurdle

 

Distance between hurdles

 

Distance from last hurdle to finish line

100m13.00m8.50m10.50m
400m45.00m35.00m40.00m

 

 

 

Figure TR22 (Rule 168) – Example of a hurdle

 

Each hurdle shall be so placed on the track that the feet shall be on the side of the approach by the athlete. The hurdle shall be so placed that the vertical plane of the side of the bar nearer to the approaching hurdler coincides with the track marking nearest the athlete.

 

  • The hurdles shall be made of metal or some other suitable material with the top bar of wood or other non-metallic suitable material. They shall consist of two feet and two uprights supporting a rectangular frame, reinforced by one or more cross bars, the uprights to be fixed at the extreme end of each base. The hurdle shall be of such a design that a force at least equal to the weight of 3.6kg applied horizontally to the centre of the top edge of the top bar is required to tilt it. The hurdle may be adjustable in height for each event. The counterweights shall be adjustable so that at each height a force at least equal to the weight of 3.6kg and not more than 4kg is required to tilt

 

The maximum horizontal deflection of the top bar of a hurdle (including any deflection of the uprights) when subject to a centrally applied force equal to the weight of 10kg

 

shall not exceed 35mm.

 

  • Dimensions: The standard heights of the hurdles shall be:

 

Distance of raceMenU20 MenU18 MenWomen/U20U18 Women
110m/100m1.067m0.991m0.914m0.838m0.762m
400m0.914m0.914m0.838m0.762m0.762m

 

Note: Due to manufacturing varieties, hurdles up to 1.000m are also acceptable in the U20 110m Hurdles.

 

In each case, there shall be a tolerance allowance of 3mm, above and below the standard heights, to allow for variation in the manufacture. The width of the hurdles shall be from 1.18m to 1.20m. The maximum length of the base shall be 0.70m. The total weight of the hurdles shall be not less than 10kg.

 

  • The height of the top bar shall be 70mm ± 5mm. The thickness of this bar should be between 10mm and 25mm, and the top edges should be rounded. The bar should be firmly fixed at the

 

  • The top bar should be painted with white and black stripes, or with other strong distinctive contrasting colours (and also in contrast with the surrounding environment), such that the lighter stripes, which should be at least 0.225m wide are on the outside. It shall be coloured so as to be visible to all sighted

 

  • All races shall be run in lanes and each athlete shall go over each hurdle and keep to their own lane throughout. Failure to do so will result in a disqualification, unless Rule

17.4 of the Technical Rules applies.

 

In addition, an athlete shall be disqualified, if:

 

  • their foot or leg is, at the instant of clearance, beside the hurdle (on either side), below the horizontal plane of the top of any hurdle; or

 

  • they knock down or displace any hurdle by hand, body or the upper side of the lead leg; or

 

  • they directly or indirectly knock down or displace a hurdle in their or in another lane in such a manner that there is effect or obstruction upon any other athlete(s) in the race, and/or another Rule is also

 

Note: Provided that this Rule is otherwise observed and the hurdle is not displaced or its height lowered in any manner including tilting in any direction, an athlete may go over the hurdle in any manner.

 

The requirement to go over each hurdle should not be read as requiring the athlete to go over each hurdle in their own lane – provided always the intention of Rules 17.3 and 17.4 of the Technical Rules is followed. But if an athlete knocks down or displaces a hurdle in another lane and thereby affects the progress of another athlete they should be disqualified.

 

Situations when an athlete knocks down or displaces a hurdle in another lane should be interpreted in a logical way. For example, an athlete who knocks down or displaces a hurdle in the lane of an athlete who has already gone over that hurdle, should not necessarily be disqualified unless they otherwise infringe the Rules, i.e. by moving to an inside lane on the

 

bend or having their foot or leg, at the instant of clearance, beside the hurdle (on either side), below the horizontal plane of the top of any hurdle. The intent of this Rule is to make it clear that an athlete who in making such action affects another athlete should be considered for disqualification.

 

Referees and Umpires must nonetheless be alert and be sure that each athlete has kept to their own lane. Additionally, it is common in hurdle races that athletes stretch their arms widely while going over the hurdle, thus hitting or hampering the athlete in the next lane. This can best be noticed by Umpires standing or a video camera being placed head-on to the athletes. In this regard Rule 17.2 of the Technical Rules may be applied.

 

Rule 22.6.1 of the Technical Rules applies to both the athlete’s “lead” and “trail” legs.

 

“Knocking down” a hurdle does not in itself result in disqualification. The previous reference in the Rule to deliberately knocking down a hurdle has been removed. In Rule 22.6.2, it is replaced by some more objective factors to be considered by the Referee. The most obvious example is where the athlete uses his hand but could also be for example by his chest if he “ran through” the hurdle. It should be noted that the reference to “the upper side of the lead leg” means any part of the front side of the lead leg, not only the part above the knee.

 

In relation to the Note, it will mainly be relevant to competitions at a lower level but is nonetheless applicable to all. Essentially, it permits an athlete, often one who has fallen or lost their stride pattern, to for example place their hands on the hurdle and “climb over”.

 

  • Except as provided in Rules 22.6.1 and 22.6.2 of the Technical Rules, the knocking down of hurdles shall not result in disqualification nor prevent a Record being

 

23.             (Rule 169) Steeplechase Races

 

  • The standard distances shall be: 2000m and

 

  • For the 3000m event, there shall be 28 hurdle jumps and 7 water jumps. The distance from the start to the beginning of the first lap shall not include any jumps, the hurdles being removed until the athletes have entered the first

 

  • For the steeplechase events, there shall be five jumps in a complete lap, with the water jump as the fourth. The jumps should be evenly distributed, so that the distance between the jumps shall be approximately one fifth of the nominal length of the

 

Note: Adjustment to the hurdle spacing may be necessary to ensure that safe distances from a hurdle / start line and to the next hurdle are maintained before and after the finish line respectively, as indicated in the World Athletics Track and Field Facilities Manual.

 

  • For the 2000m event, there shall be 18 hurdle jumps and 5 water jumps. The first jump is at the third hurdle of a lap. The previous hurdles shall be removed until the athletes have passed them for the first

 

Note: In the 2000m event, if the water jump is on the inside of the track, the finish line has to be passed twice before the first complete lap with five jumps.

 

  • The hurdles shall be 0.914m ± 0.003m high for Senior and U20 men’s events, 0.838m ± 0.003m high for U18 men’s events and 0.762m ± 0.003m for women’s events and shall be at least 3.94m

 

The section of the top bar of the hurdles, and the hurdle at the water jump, shall be 0.127m square.

 

The weight of each hurdle shall be between 80kg and 100kg. Each hurdle shall have on either side a base between 1.2m and 1.4m (see Figure (a) TR23).

 

 

 
  

 

Figure (a) TR23 (Rule 169) – Example of a steeplechase hurdle

 

The hurdle at the water jump shall be 3.66m ± 0.02m wide, and shall be firmly fixed in or to the pit concrete walls, so that minimal only horizontal movement is possible.

 

The top bars shall be made of wood or other suitable material and should be painted with white and black stripes, or with other strong distinctive contrasting colours (and also in contrast with the surrounding environment), such that the lighter stripes, which should be at least 0.225m wide, are on the outside and shall be coloured so as to be visible to all sighted athletes.

 

The hurdle shall be placed on the track so that at least 0.30m of the top bar will extend inside the inner edge of the track.

 

Note: It is recommended that the first hurdle taken in the race should be at least 5m  in width.

 

[Rule 23.5 amended in June 2019 and in force from 1 April 2020. For the current edition of Rule, please refer to Competition Rule 169.5.]

 

  • The water jump, including the hurdle, shall be 3.66m ± 0.02m in length and the water pit shall be 3.66m ± 0.02m in

 

The bottom of the water pit shall consist of a synthetic surface, or matting,  of sufficient thickness to ensure safe landing, and allow for the spikes to grip satisfactorily. The depth of the water closest to the hurdle shall be 0.50m ± 0.05m for approximately 1.20m. From there, the bottom shall have a uniform slope of 12.4° ± 1° upwards to the level of the track at the farther end of the water pit. At the start of a race, the surface of the water shall be level with the surface of the track within a margin of 20mm.

 

Note: Pits to the 2018/19 specifications remain acceptable.

 

 

 

Figure (b) TR23 (Rule 169) – Water jump

 

  • Each athlete shall go over or through the water and shall go over each hurdle. Failure to do so will result in a

 

In addition, an athlete shall be disqualified, if

 

  • they step to one side or other of the water jump, or

 

  • their foot or leg is, at the instant of clearance, beside the hurdle (on either side), below the horizontal plane of the top of any

 

Provided this Rule is observed, an athlete may go over each hurdle in any manner.

 

24.             (Rule 170) Relay Races

 

  • The standard distances shall be: 4 × 100m, 4 × 200m, 100m-200m-300m-400m Medley Relay (Medley Relay), 4 × 400m, 4 × 800m, 1200m-400m-800m-1600m Distance Medley Relay (Distance Medley Relay), 4 ×

 

Note: The Medley Relay may be run with the legs in a different order in which case the appropriate adjustments should be made to the application of Rules 24.14, 24.18,

24.19 and 24.20 of the Technical Rules.

 

  • Lines 50mm wide shall be drawn across the track to mark the start of each leg distance (scratch line).

 

  • In the 4 x 100m and the 4 x 200m relays, and for the first and second changes in the Medley Relay, each takeover zone shall be 30m long, of which the scratch line is 20m from the start of the zone. For the third change in the Medley Relay and in the 4 x 400m and longer relays each takeover zone shall be 20m long of which the scratch line is the The zones shall start and finish at the edges of the zone lines

 

nearest the start line in the running direction. For each takeover conducted in lanes, a designated official shall ensure that the athletes are correctly placed in their takeover zone. The designated official shall also ensure that Rule 24.4 of the Technical Rules is observed.

 

The Umpires must ensure that each athlete from each team takes their position in the correct lanes or position. The Starter’s Assistants will be responsible for the positioning of the first runners and for ensuring that each is supplied with a baton. They may also be assigned to assist at any takeover zones which subsequently occur at the start line. Chief Umpires for each takeover zone and the umpires placed at their disposal will be responsible for the positioning of the subsequent runners. When all athletes are correctly positioned the zone Chief Umpire should advise the relevant other officials by the agreed means of communication – which for major competitions would usually be by radio.

 

They must also ensure that for all takeovers the outgoing runners’ feet are completely inside the zone before they commence their movement which eventuates in the taking of the baton. This movement may not commence at any point outside the zone.

 

  • When all or the first portion of a Relay Race is being run in lanes, an athlete may place one check-mark on the track within their own lane, by using adhesive tape, maximum 0.05m × 0.40m, of a distinctive colour which cannot be confused with other permanent markings. No other check-mark may be used. The Judges shall direct the relevant athlete(s) to adapt or remove any marks not complying with this Rule. If they do not, the Judges shall remove

 

Note: Serious cases may further be dealt with under Rule 18.5 of the Competition Rules and Rule 7.2 of the Technical Rules.

 

  • The relay baton shall be a smooth hollow tube, circular in section, made of wood, metal or any other rigid material in one piece, the length of which shall be 0.28m to 0.30m. The outside diameter shall be 40mm ± 2mm and it shall not weigh less than 50g. It should be coloured so as to be easily visible during the

 

  • Baton specifications and interaction guidelines:

 

  • A baton shall be used for all Relay Races held in the Stadium and shall be carried by hand throughout the race. At least for competitions conducted under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition rule, each baton shall be numbered and of a different colour and may include a timing

 

Note: If possible, the allocation of the colour to each lane or starting order position should be shown on the start list.

 

  • Athletes are not permitted to wear gloves or to place material (other than those permitted by Rule 6.4.3 of the Technical Rules) or substances on their hands in order to obtain a better grip of the

 

  • If dropped, the baton shall be recovered by the athlete who dropped it. They may leave their lane to retrieve it provided that, by doing so, they do not lessen the distance to be covered. In addition, where the baton is dropped in such a way that it moves sideways or forward in the direction of running (including beyond the finish line), the athlete who dropped it, after retrieving it, must return at least to the point where it was last in their hand, before continuing in the race. Provided these procedures are adopted

 

where applicable and no other athlete is impeded, dropping the baton shall not result in disqualification.

 

If an athlete does not follow this Rule, their team shall be disqualified.

 

  • The baton shall be passed within the takeover zone. The passing of the baton commences when it is first touched by the receiving athlete and is completed the moment it is in the hand of only the receiving athlete. In relation to the takeover zone, it is only the position of the baton which is decisive. Passing of the baton outside the takeover zone shall result in

 

In determining the position of the baton, it is the whole baton which must be considered.

 

Umpires must be diligent to ensure that they observe any contact with the baton prior to the baton entering the change-zone. If the outgoing runner even touches the baton prior to the baton being inside the zone, the team will be subject to disqualification. They must also ensure that the baton is only in the hand of the receiving athlete before it “leaves” the takeover zone.

 

  • Until the moment when the baton is in the hand of only the receiving athlete, Rule

17.3 of the Technical Rules shall be applicable only to the incoming athlete. Thereafter it shall be applicable only to the receiving athlete.

 

Additionally, athletes before receiving and/or after handing over the baton, should keep in their lanes or maintain position until the course is clear to avoid obstruction to other athletes. Rules 17.3 and 17.4 of the Technical Rules shall not apply to these athletes. If, however, an athlete impedes a member of another team, including by running out of position or lane, Rule 17.2 of the Technical Rules shall be applied.

 

  • If during the race an athlete takes or picks up the baton of another team, their team shall be disqualified. The other team should not be penalised unless an advantage is obtained.

 

  • Each member of a relay team may run one leg only. Any four athletes from among those entered for the competition, whether for that or any other event, may be used in the composition of the relay team for any round. However, once a relay team has started in a competition, up to a total of four additional athletes may be used as substitutes in the composition of the team. If a team does not follow this Rule, it shall be

 

  • The composition of a team and the order of running for a relay shall be officially declared no later than one hour before the published first call time (the time by which the athletes must be present in the Call Room) for the first heat of each round of the competition. Further alterations must be verified by a medical officer appointed by the Organisers and may be made only until the final call time (the time at which the athletes are listed to depart the Call Room) for the particular heat in which the team is competing. The team shall compete as named and in the declared order. If a team does not follow this Rule, it shall be

 

  • The 4 × 100m race shall be run entirely in

 

  • The 4 × 200m race may be run in any of the following ways:

 

  • where possible, entirely in lanes (four bends in lanes),

 

  • in lanes for the first two legs, as well as that part of the third leg up to the nearer edge of the breakline described in Rule 17.5 of the Technical Rules, where athletes may leave their respective lanes (three bends in lanes),

 

  • in lanes for the first leg up to the nearer edge of the breakline described in Rule 17.5 of the Technical Rules, where athletes may leave their respective lanes (one bend in lanes).

 

Note: Where not more than four teams are competing and option 1 is not possible, option 3 should be used.

 

  • The Medley Relay race should be run in lanes for the first two legs, as well as that part of the third leg up to the nearer edge of the breakline described in Rule 17.5 of the Technical Rules, where athletes may leave their respective lanes (two bends in lanes).

 

  • The 4 × 400m race may be run in either of the following ways:

 

  • in lanes for the first leg, as well as that part of the second leg up to the nearer edge of the breakline described in Rule 17.5 of the Technical Rules, where athletes may leave their respective lanes (three bends in lanes);

 

  • in lanes for the first leg up to the nearer edge of the breakline described in Rule 17.5 of the Technical Rules, where athletes may leave their respective lanes (one bend in lanes).

 

Note: Where not more than four teams are competing, Rule 24.15.2 should be used.

 

  • The 4 × 800m race may be run in either of the following ways:

 

  • in lanes for the first leg up to the nearer edge of the breakline described in Rule 17.5 of the Technical Rules, where athletes may leave their respective lanes (one bend in lanes);

 

  • without the use of

 

  • If an athlete does not follow Rule 24.13, 24.14, 24.15 or 24.16.1 of the Technical Rules their team shall be

 

  • The Distance Medley Relay race and the 4 × 1500m race shall be run without the use of

 

  • For all takeovers, athletes are not permitted to begin running outside their takeover zones, and shall start within the zone. If an athlete does not follow this Rule, their team shall be

 

  • In the Medley Relay, the athletes running the final leg and in the 4 × 400m race, the athletes running the third and fourth legs (or under Rule 24.15.2 of the Technical Rules, the second leg) shall, under the direction of a designated official, place themselves in their waiting position in the same order (inside to out) as the order of their respective team members as they enter the last bend. Once the incoming athletes have passed this point, the waiting athletes shall maintain their order, and shall not exchange positions at the beginning of the takeover zone. If an athlete does not follow this Rule, their team shall be

 

Note: In the 4 × 200m race (if this event is not run entirely in lanes) where the previous leg is not run in lanes, the athletes shall line up in the order of the start list (inside to out).

 

  • In any race, when lanes are not being used, including when applicable, in 4 × 200m, the Medley Relay and 4 × 400m, waiting athletes can take an inner position on the track as incoming team members approach, provided they do not jostle or obstruct another athlete so as to impede their In 4 × 200m, the Medley Relay and 4

× 400m, waiting athletes shall maintain the order in accordance with Rule 24.20 of the Technical Rules. If an athlete does not follow this Rule, their team shall be disqualified.

 

  • In the case of relay events not covered by this Rule, the relevant competition regulations should specify any particular rules that should be applied and the method by which the relay should be

 

Chief Umpires must remain at the zone to which they and their Umpires have been assigned. Once the athletes are correctly placed in their lanes and the race has started, zone Chief Umpires and those Umpires assigned to them are responsible for reporting  any infringements of both these Rules as well as any other infringements particularly those under Rule 17 of the Technical Rules.

 

PART III – FIELD EVENTS

(In force from 1 November 2019)

 

25.             (Rule 180) General Conditions – Field Events Practice Trials at the Competition Area

  • At the competition area and before the beginning of the event, each athlete may have practice trials. In the case of throwing events, the practice trials will be in draw order and always under the supervision of the

 

Whilst in the past the Rules specified that there should be two practice trials for each athlete in throwing events, there is currently no such specification. Rule 25.1 of the Technical Rules should be interpreted as allowing whatever number of practice trials that may be included in the warm-up time available. Whilst for major events, two remains a standard practice, this is regarded as a minimum and should time be available and some or all or the athletes request additional practice trials, this can be permitted.

 

  • Once a competition has begun, athletes are not permitted to use, for practice purposes, as appropriate,

 

  • the runway or take-off area;

 

  • vaulting poles;

 

  • implements;

 

  • the circles or the ground within the sector with or without

 

The application of this Rule should not prevent an athlete from touching, preparing or taping their vaulting pole or their selected implement in readiness for their trial provided that it does not endanger, delay or obstruct another athlete or other person. It is particularly important that the Judges interpret this Rule reasonably so as to ensure the competition proceeds in an efficient manner and the athlete is able if they so choose to take their trial immediately their time begins.

 

Markers

 

  • Markers, as follows:

 

  • In all Field Events where a runway is used, markers shall be placed alongside it, except for High Jump where the markers can be placed on the runway. An athlete may use one or two markers (supplied or approved by the Organisers) to assist them in their run-up and take-off. If such markers are not supplied, they may use adhesive tape but not chalk or similar substance nor anything which leaves indelible

 

  • For throws made from a circle, an athlete may use one marker only. This marker may be placed only on the ground in the area immediately behind or adjacent to the circle but not on any lines or in the landing sector. It must be temporary, in position only for the duration of each athlete’s own trial, and shall not impair the view of the Judges. No personal markers may be placed in or beside the landing

 

Note: Each marker shall be composed of a single piece only.

 

  • For Pole Vault, the Organisers should place suitable and safe distance markers beside the runway at each 0.5m between the points 2.5m to 5m from the “zero” line and at each 1.0m from the 5m to the 18m

 

  • The Judges shall direct the relevant athlete to adapt or remove any marks not complying with this Rule. If they do not, the Judges shall remove

 

Note: Serious cases may further be dealt with under Rule 18.5 of the Competition Rules and Rule 7.2 of the Technical Rules.

 

If the ground is wet, the adhesive tape can be fixed to the ground by drawing pins of several colours.

 

The requirement for each marker to be a single piece should be interpreted sensibly by the Referee. If for example the manufacturer has used two pieces connected to make a single structure which is intended to be used that way, it should be allowed. Similarly, if an athlete chooses to place both their markers in the same place or, in the case of the High Jump, an athlete who tears the tape they are given into one or more pieces to make a single marker of a different shape to stand out more clearly, these should also be acceptable.

 

Rule 25.3.3 of the Technical Rules is designed to assist athletes and their coaches in determining their take-off points and the progress on the runway. There is no set concept as to how they should be constructed or look – with Organisers and Referees having discretion in interpreting what is acceptable and fair within the intention of the Rule in each particular competition environment.

 

Performance Markers and Wind Socks

 

  • Performance Markers and Wind Socks, as follows:

 

  • A distinctive flag or marker may be provided to mark the existing World Record and, when appropriate, the existing Area, National or Meeting Record.

 

  • One or more wind sock(s) should be placed in an appropriate position in all jumping events, Discus Throw and Javelin Throw, to show the athletes the approximate direction and strength of the

 

Competing Order and Trials

 

  • Except where Rule 25.6 of the Technical Rules applies, the athletes shall compete in an order drawn by

 

If any athlete by their own decision makes a trial in an order different from that previously determined, Rule 18.5 of the Competition Rules and Rule 7.2 of the Technical Rules shall be applied. In the case of a warning, the result of the trial (valid or failure) will stand. If there is a Qualification Round, there shall be a fresh drawing of lot for the final.

 

  • Except for the High Jump and Pole Vault, no athlete shall have more than one trial recorded in any one round of trials of the

 

In all Field Events, except for the High Jump and Pole Vault, where there are more than eight athletes, each athlete shall be allowed three trials and the eight athletes with the best valid performances shall be allowed three additional trials, unless the

 

applicable regulations provide otherwise.

 

In the case of the last qualifying place, if two or more athletes have the same best performances, Rule 25.22 of the Technical Rules shall be applied. If it is thus determined that there has been a tie, the tying athletes shall be allowed any additional trials, permitted by the applicable regulations.

 

Where there are eight athletes or fewer, each athlete shall be allowed six trials, unless the applicable regulations provide otherwise. If more than one fail to achieve a valid trial during the first three rounds of trials, such athletes shall compete in subsequent rounds of trials before those with valid trials, in the same relative order according to the original draw.

 

In both cases:

 

  • the competing order for any subsequent rounds of trials shall be in the reverse ranking order recorded after the first three rounds of trials, unless the applicable regulations provide otherwise;

 

  • when the competing order is to be changed and there is a tie for any position, those tying shall compete in the same relative order according to the original

 

Note (i): For Vertical Jumps, see Rule 26.2 of the Technical Rules.

 

Note (ii): If one or more athlete(s) is permitted by the Referee to continue in a competition “under protest” in accordance with Rule 8.5 of the Technical Rules, such athletes shall compete in all subsequent rounds of trials before all others continuing in the competition and if more than one, in the same relative order according to the original draw.

 

Note (iii): The regulations of the relevant governing body may specify the number of trials (provided it is no more than six) and the number of athletes which may progress to each additional round of trials after the third.

 

Note (iv): The regulations of the relevant governing body may specify that the competing order be changed again after any further round of trials after the third.

 

Recording of Trials

 

  • Except in High Jump and Pole Vault, a valid trial shall be indicated by the measurement

 

For the standard abbreviations and symbols to be used in all other cases, see Rule

25.4 of the Competition Rules.

 

Completion of Trials

 

  • The Judge shall not raise a white flag to indicate a valid trial until a trial is completed. The Judge may reconsider a decision if they believe they raised the incorrect

 

The completion of a valid trial shall be determined as follows:

 

  • in the case of Vertical Jumps, once the judge has determined that there is no failure according to Rules 27.2, 28.2 or 28.4 of the Technical Rules;

 

  • in the case of Horizontal Jumps, once the athlete leaves the landing area in accordance with Rule 30.2 of the Technical Rules;

 

  • in the case of throwing events, once the athlete leaves the circle or runway in accordance with Rule 32.17 of the Technical

 

Qualification Round

 

  • A Qualification Round shall be held in Field Events in which the number of athletes is too large to allow the competition to be conducted satisfactorily in a single round (final). When a Qualification Round is held, all athletes shall compete in, and qualify through, that round except that the relevant governing body may, for one or more events, authorise the conduct of additional qualification round(s) either at the same or at one or more earlier competition(s) to determine some or all of the athletes who shall be entitled to participate and in which round of the competition. Such procedure and any other means (such as achieving entry standards during a specified period, by specified placing in a designated competition or by rankings) by which an athlete is entitled to participate, and in which round of the competition, shall be set out in the regulations for each

 

Performances accomplished in a Qualification Round or additional preliminary qualification round(s) shall not be considered as part of the final.

 

  • The athletes shall normally be divided into two or more groups such that the groups are of approximately equal strength and whenever possible so that representatives of each Member or team shall be placed in different groups. Unless there are facilities for the groups to compete at the same time and under the same conditions, each group should start its practice trials immediately after the previous group has

 

  • It is recommended that, in competitions of more than three days, a rest day be provided between Qualifying Rounds and the finals in the vertical jumping

 

  • The conditions for qualifying, the qualifying standard and the number of athletes in the final, shall be decided by the Technical Delegate(s). If no Technical Delegate(s) have been appointed, the conditions shall be decided by the Organisers. For competitions conducted under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, there should be at least 12 athletes in the final unless otherwise provided in the regulations for the

 

  • In a Qualifying Round, apart from the High Jump and the Pole Vault, each athlete shall be allowed up to three trials. Once an athlete has achieved the qualifying standard, they shall not continue in the Qualifying

 

  • In a Qualifying Round for the High Jump and the Pole Vault, the athletes, not eliminated after three consecutive failures, shall continue to compete according to Rule 26.2 of the Technical Rules (including passing a trial) until the end of the last trial at the height set as the qualifying standard, unless the number of athletes for the final has been reached as defined in Rule 25.12 of the Technical Rules. Once it is determined that an athlete will be in the final, they shall not continue in the Qualifying Round.

 

  • If no athletes, or fewer than the required number of athletes, achieve the pre-set qualifying standard, the group of finalists shall be expanded to that number by adding athletes according to their performances in the Qualifying Round. In the case of the last qualifying place, if two or more athletes have the same best performances in the

 

overall results of the competition, Rule 25.22 or 26.8 of the Technical Rules as appropriate shall be applied. If it is thus determined that there has been a tie, the tying athletes shall be placed in the final.

 

  • When a Qualifying Round for the High Jump and Pole Vault is held in two simultaneous groups, it is recommended that the bar be raised to each height at the same time in each

 

It is important when seeding High Jump and Pole Vault qualifying groups that the requirements of Rule 25.10 and 25.16 of the Technical Rules are both observed. The Technical Delegates and the ITO/Referee must follow closely the progress of the qualifying rounds of the High Jump and the Pole Vault to ensure that, on the one hand, the athletes must jump, as long as they are not eliminated under Rule 26.2 of the Technical Rules until the qualifying standard has been reached (unless the number of athletes for the final has been reached as defined in Rule 25.12 of the Technical Rules) and, on the other hand, any tie between athletes in the overall standings in the two groups is resolved according to Rule

26.8 of the Technical Rules. Close attention must also be kept to the application of Rule

25.14 of the Technical Rules to ensure that athletes do not unnecessarily continue in the competition once it is certain that they will be in the final regardless of what may happen to the other athletes continuing to compete in the Qualification Round.

 

Time Allowed for Trials

 

  • The official responsible shall indicate to an athlete that all is ready for the trial to begin, and the period allowed for this trial shall commence from that

 

For the Pole Vault, the time shall begin when the crossbar has been adjusted according to the previous wishes of the athlete. No additional time will be allowed for further adjustment.

 

If the time allowed elapses after an athlete has started their trial, that trial should not be disallowed.

 

If after the time for a trial has begun, an athlete decides not to attempt that trial, it shall be considered a failure once that period allowed for the trial has elapsed.

 

The following times shall not be exceeded. If the time is exceeded, unless a determination is made under Rule 25.18 of the Technical Rules, the trial shall be recorded as a failure:

 

Individual Events 
 

More than 3 athletes (or for the

High JumpPole VaultOther
very first trial of each athlete)1 min1 min1 min
2 or 3 athletes1.5 min2 min1 min
1 athlete3 min5 min
Consecutive trials2 min3 min2 min

 

 

Combined Events   
 

More than 3 athletes (or for the

High JumpPole VaultOther
very first trial of each athlete)1 min1 min1 min
2 or 3 athletes1.5 min2 min1 min
1 athlete2 min3 min
Consecutive trials2 min3 min2 min

 

Note (i): A clock which shows the remaining time allowed for a trial should be visible to an athlete. In addition, an official shall raise and keep raised, a yellow flag, or otherwise indicate, during the final 15 seconds of the time allowed.

 

Note (ii): In the High Jump and Pole Vault, any change in the time period allowed for a trial, except the time specified for consecutive trials, shall not be applied until the bar is raised to a new height. In the other Field Events, except for the time specified for consecutive trials, the time limit allowed will not change.

 

Note (iii): When calculating the number of athletes remaining in the competition, this shall include those athletes who could be involved in a jump off for first place.

 

Note (iv): When only one athlete (who has won the competition) remains in High jump or  Pole Vault and is attempting a World Record or other record relevant to the competition, the time limit shall be increased by one minute beyond those set out above.

 

Whilst the Judges should always use a system which notifies or calls the next athlete who is to take their trial plus the one who is to follow, this is essential when the time allowed for an athlete to take their trial is one minute. They must also ensure that the competition area is completely ready for the next trial before calling the athlete and then starting the clock. The Judges, and the Referee in particular, must be fully aware of the current competition environment, including direction from Event Presentation, when deciding when to start the clock or to “time out” and call a failure.

 

Particular circumstances which should be taken into account are the availability of the runway for an athlete’s trial in High Jump and Javelin Throw (when Track Events are being held simultaneously in the same competition area) and the distance for athletes to walk to and through the cage to reach the circle to take their trial in Discus Throw and Hammer Throw.

 

To be clear, the time limit will not change in the final round of any horizontal Field Event, once only 2 or 3 athletes remain to take their trials. The 1 minute time limit only applies when a Horizontal Field Event has only 2 or 3 athletes on the original start list (except for the very first trial of each athlete).

 

Replacement Trials

 

  • If, for any reason beyond their control, an athlete is hampered in a trial and is unable to take it, or the trial cannot be correctly recorded, the Referee shall have the authority to award them a replacement trial or to re-set the time either partially or in full.

 

No change in the order shall be permitted. A reasonable time shall be allowed for any replacement trial according to the particular circumstances of the case. In cases when the competition has progressed before the replacement trial is awarded, it should be

 

taken before any other subsequent trials are then made.

 

There are several situations in which it may be appropriate for an athlete to be given a replacement trial including where because of procedural or technical failure a trial is not measured and it is not possible for a re-measurement to be accurately made. Whilst this should be avoided by good systems and backups, with technology being used more and more provision needs to be made for when things do go wrong. As no change in the competition order should be permitted (unless the problem is not immediately discovered and the competition has continued), the Referee must decide how long should be allowed for the replacement trial taking into account the specific circumstances of each particular case.

 

Absence during Competition

 

  • An athlete may not leave the immediate area of the event during the progress of the competition, unless they have the permission of, and is accompanied by, an official. If possible, a warning should be given first, but for subsequent instances or in serious cases the athlete shall be

 

Change of Competition Area or Time

 

  • The Technical Delegate(s) or appropriate Referee shall have the authority to change the place or time of the competition if, in their opinion, the conditions justify it. Such a change should be made only after a round of trials has been

 

Note: Neither the wind strength nor its change of direction is sufficient condition to change the place nor time of the competition.

 

The phrase “round of trials” instead of “rounds” is designed to ensure a clear difference between a “round of trials” within a Field Event competition and a “round of the competition” (i.e. a Qualification Round or a Final).

 

If the conditions make it impossible to complete a round of trials before a change of place or time is made, the Technical Delegate (through the Referee) or Referee should normally void those trials already completed in that round of trials and recommence the competition at the beginning of that round of trials. See also Rule 11.3 of the Technical Rules.

 

Result

 

  • Each athlete shall be credited with the best of all their trials, including, in the case of High Jump and Pole Vault, those achieved in resolving a tie for first

 

Ties

 

  • Except for the High Jump and Pole Vault, the second best performance of the athletes having the same best performances shall determine whether there has been a tie. Then, if necessary, the third best, and so on. If the athletes are still equal following the application of this Rule 25.22, it shall be determined to be a

 

Except in Vertical Jumps, in the case of a tie for any place, including first place, the tie shall remain.

 

Note: For Vertical Jumps, see Rules 26.8, 26.9 of the Technical Rules.

 

Vertical Jumps

 

  1. (Rule 181) General Conditions – Vertical Jumps

 

  • Before the competition begins, the Referee or the Chief Judge shall announce to the athletes the starting height and the subsequent heights to which the bar will be raised at the end of each round of trials, until there is only one athlete remaining having won the competition, or there is a tie for first (For Combined Events, see Rule

39.8.4 of the Technical Rules).

 

Trials

 

  • An athlete may commence jumping / vaulting at any height previously announced by the Referee or Chief Judge and may jump / vault at their own discretion at any subsequent height. Three consecutive failures, regardless of the height at which any of such failures occur, disqualify from further jumping / vaulting except in the case of a tie for first

 

The effect of this Rule is that an athlete may pass their second or third trial at a particular height (after failing first or second time) and still jump / vault at a subsequent height.

 

If an athlete passes a trial at a certain height, they may not make any subsequent trial at that height, except in the case of a jump-off for first place.

 

In the case of the High Jump and Pole Vault, if an athlete is not present when all other athletes who are present have completed the competition, the Referee shall deem that such athlete(s) has abandoned the competition, once the period for one further trial has elapsed.

 

  • Even after all the other athletes have failed, an athlete is entitled to continue jumping until they have forfeited their right to compete

 

  • Unless there is only one athlete remaining and they have won the competition:

 

  • the bar shall never be raised by less than 2cm in the High Jump and 5cm in the Pole Vault after each round of trials; and

 

  • the increment of the raising of the bar shall never

 

These Rules 26.4.1 and 26.4.2 of the Technical Rules shall not apply once the athletes still competing all agree to raise it to a World Record (or other record relevant to the competition) height directly.

 

After an athlete has won the competition, the height or heights to which the bar is raised shall be decided by the athlete, in consultation with the relevant Judge or Referee.

 

Note: This Rule does not apply for a Combined Events Competition.

 

Height Measurement

 

  • In all vertical jumping events, measurements shall be made, in whole centimetres, perpendicularly from the ground to the lowest part of the upper side of the

 

  • Any measurement of a new height shall be made before athletes attempt such height. A re-measurement should be made if the bar has been substituted. In all cases of Records, the Judges shall also re-check the measurement before each subsequent Record attempt if the bar has been touched since last

 

Crossbar

 

  • The crossbar shall be made of fibre-glass, or other suitable material but not metal, circular in cross-section except for the end pieces. It shall be coloured so as to be visible to all sighted athletes. The overall length of the crossbar shall be 4.00m ± 0.02m in the High Jump and 4.50m ± 0.02m in Pole Vault. The maximum weight of the crossbar shall be 2kg in the High Jump and 2.25kg in Pole Vault. The diameter of the circular part of the crossbar shall be 30mm ±

 

The crossbar shall consist of three parts – the circular bar and two end pieces, each 30mm-35mm wide and 0.15m-0.20m long for the purpose of resting on the supports of the uprights.

 

These end pieces shall be circular or semi-circular with one clearly defined flat surface on which the bar rests on the crossbar supports. This flat surface may not be higher than the centre of the vertical cross section of the crossbar. The end pieces shall be hard and smooth. They shall not be of, or covered with rubber or any other material which has the effect of increasing the friction between them and the supports.

 

The crossbar shall have no bias and, when in place, shall sag a maximum of 20mm in the High Jump and 30mm in Pole Vault.

 

Control of elasticity: Hang a 3kg weight in the middle of the crossbar when in position. It may sag a maximum of 70mm in the High Jump and 0.11m in Pole Vault.

 

 

 
  

 

 

Figure TR26 (Rule 181) – Alternative ends for crossbar

 

Placings

 

  • If two or more athletes clear the same final height, the procedure to decide the places will be the following:

 

  • The athlete with the lowest number of jumps at the height last cleared shall be awarded the higher

 

  • If the athletes are equal following the application of Rule 26.8.1 of the Technical Rules, the athlete with the lowest total of failures throughout the

 

competition up to and including the height last cleared, shall be awarded the higher place.

 

  • If the athletes are still equal following the application of Rule 26.8.2 of the Technical Rules, the athletes concerned shall be awarded the same place unless it concerns the first

 

  • If it concerns the first place, a jump-off between these athletes shall be conducted in accordance with Rule 26.9 of the Technical Rules, unless otherwise decided, either in advance according to the regulations applying to the competition, or during the competition but before the start of the event by the Technical Delegate(s) or the Referee if no Technical Delegate has been appointed. If no jump-off is carried out, including where the relevant athletes at any stage decide not to jump further, the tie for first place shall

 

Note: This Rule 26.8.4 does not apply for a Combined Events Competition.

 

There are a number of ways in which a jump-off may be terminated:

 

  1. by provision in advance of the competition set out in the regulations;
  2. by decision during the competition by the Technical Delegate (or Referee if there is no Technical Delegate);
  3. by decision of the athletes not to jump further prior to or at any stage of the jump-off.

 

Whilst any decision by the Technical Delegate or Referee not to conduct a jump-off should be made before the start of the event, there may be circumstances where this might not be possible such as where conditions at the place of competition make it impossible or undesirable to begin or continue with a jump-off. The Referee could use their powers under Rule 18 of the Competition Rules or Rule 25 of the Technical Rules to deal with this situation. It is emphasised that the athletes may make the decision not to jump further either before or at any stage during the jump-off.

 

Jump-off

 

  • Jump-off, as follows:

 

  • Athletes concerned must jump at every height until a decision is reached or until all of the athletes concerned decide not to jump

 

  • Each athlete shall have one jump at each

 

  • The jump-off shall start at the next height determined in accordance with Rule 26.1 of the Technical Rules after the height last cleared by the athletes

 

  • If no decision is reached the bar shall be raised if more than one athlete concerned were successful, or lowered if all of them failed, by 2cm for the High Jump and 5cm for the Pole

 

  • If an athlete is not jumping at a height, they automatically forfeit any claim to a higher place. If only one other athlete then remains, they are declared the winner regardless of whether they attempt that

 

High Jump – Example

 

Heights announced by the Chief Judge at the beginning of competition: 1.75m; 1.80m; 1.84m; 1.88m; 1.91m; 1.94m; 1.97m; 1.99m…

 

AthleteHeightsFailuresJump OffPos
 1.75m1.80m1.84m1.88m1.91m1.94m1.97m 1.91m1.89m1.91m 
AOXOOXOX-XX 2XOX2
BXOXOXXX2XOO1
COXOXOXXX 2XX 3
DXOXOXOXXX  3   4

 

“A”, “B”, “C” and “D” all cleared 1.88m.

 

Rules 26.8 and 26.9 of the Technical Rules now come into operation; the Judges add up the total number of failures, up to and including the height last cleared, i.e. 1.88m.

 

“D” has more failures than “A”, “B” or “C”, and is therefore awarded fourth place. “A”, “B” and “C” are still equal and as this concerns the first place, they shall jump at 1.91m which is the next height after the height last cleared by the athletes concerned.

 

As all the athletes failed, the bar is lowered to 1.89m for another jump-off. As only “C” failed to clear 1.89m, the two other athletes, “A” and “B” shall have a third jump-off at 1.91m which only “B” cleared and is therefore declared the winner.

 

When an athlete unilaterally decides to withdraw from a jump-off, the other athlete (if only one remains) will be declared the winner in accordance with Rule 26.9.5 of the Technical Rules. It is not necessary for that athlete to attempt the applicable height. Where more than one athlete remains in the jump-off, the jump-off continues with those athletes, with the athlete who withdrew being placed according to their then finishing place, they having forfeited any right to any higher placing, including first, then remaining.

 

Extraneous Forces

 

  • When it is clear that the bar has been displaced by a force not associated with an athlete (e.g. a gust of wind)

 

  • if such displacement occurs after an athlete has cleared the bar without touching it, then the trial shall be considered successful, or

 

  • if such displacement occurs under any other circumstance, a new trial shall be

 

27.             (Rule 182) High Jump Competition

  • An athlete shall take off from one

 

  • An athlete fails if:

 

  • After the jump, the bar does not remain on the supports because of the action of the athlete whilst jumping; or

 

  • They touch the ground including the landing area beyond the vertical plane through the nearer edge of the crossbar, either between or outside the

 

uprights with any part of their body, without first clearing the bar. However, if when they jump, an athlete touches the landing area with their foot and in the opinion of the Judge, no advantage is gained, the jump for that reason shall not be considered a failure.

 

Note: To assist in the implementation of this Rule a white line 50mm wide shall be drawn (usually by adhesive tape or similar material)  between points 3m outside of each upright, the nearer edge of the line being drawn along the vertical plane through the nearer edge of the crossbar.

 

  • They touch the crossbar or the vertical section of the uprights when running up without

 

Runway and Take-off Area

 

  • The minimum width of the runway shall be 16m and the minimum length of the runway shall be 15m except in competitions held under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, where the minimum length shall be 25m.

 

  • The maximum overall downward inclination in the last 15m of the runway and take-off area shall not exceed 1:167 (0.6%) along any radius of the semi-circular area centred midway between the uprights and having the minimum radius specified in Rule 27.3 of the Technical Rules. The landing area should be placed so that the athlete’s approach is up the

 

Note: Runways and take-off areas to the 2018/19 specifications remain acceptable.

 

  • The take-off area shall be level or any inclination shall be in accordance with the requirements of Rule 27.4 of the Technical Rules and the World Athletics Track and Field Facilities

 

Apparatus

 

  • Any style of uprights or posts may be used, provided they are

 

They shall have supports for the crossbar firmly fixed to them.

 

They shall be sufficiently tall as to exceed the actual height to which the crossbar is raised by at least 0.10m.

 

The distance between the uprights shall be not less than 4.00m nor more than 4.04m.

 

  • The uprights or posts shall not be moved during the competition unless the Referee considers that either the take-off or landing area has become

 

In such a case, the change shall be made only after a round of trials has been completed.

 

  • The crossbar supports shall be flat and rectangular, 40mm wide and 60mm long. They shall be firmly fixed to the uprights and immovable during the jump and shall each face the opposite upright. The ends of the crossbar shall rest on them in such a manner that, if the crossbar is touched by an athlete, it will easily fall to the ground, either forwards or backwards. The surface of the supports shall be

 

The supports shall not be of, or covered with, rubber or with any other material which

 

has the effect of increasing the friction between them and the surface of the crossbar, nor may they have any kind of springs.

 

The supports shall be the same height above the take-off area immediately below each end of the crossbar.

 

 

 
  

 

 

Figure TR27 (Rule 182) – High Jump uprights and crossbar

 

  • There shall be a space of at least 10mm between the ends of the crossbar and the uprights.

 

Landing Area

 

  • For competitions under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, the landing area shall be not smaller than 6m long x 4m wide x 0.7m high behind the vertical plane of the

 

Note: The uprights and landing area should also be designed so that there is a clearance of at least 0.1m between them when in use, to avoid displacement of the crossbar through a movement of the landing area causing contact with the uprights.

 

For other competitions, the landing area should measure not less than 5m long x 3m wide x 0.7m high.

 

Team of Officials

 

For a High Jump event, it is recommended to allocate the available officials as follows:

 

  1. The Chief Judge will watch over the whole of the event and verify the measurements. They must be provided with two flags – white to indicate if the trial is valid and red if it is a failure. They must place themselves so as to manage two matters in particular:

 

  1. Frequently it happens that the cross-bar having been touched by an athlete trembles on the supports. The Chief Judge, depending on the position of the cross-bar, must decide when the vibrating of the bar must be stopped and the appropriate flag raised – particularly the special situations as covered in Rule

26.10 of the Technical Rules; and

 

  1. Since the athlete may not touch the crossbar, the vertical section of the uprights or ground beyond the vertical plane of the nearer edge of the crossbar it is important to keep a watch on the position of the athlete’s feet in situations where when deciding not to complete a trial they run to the side or goes “under” the

 

  1. Two Judges, one on either side of the landing area and slightly standing back in charge of replacing the crossbar when it falls, and assisting the Chief Judge in applying the above

 

  1. Judge – a recorder scoring the results sheet and calling each athlete (and the one who is to follow).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the scoreboard (trial-number-result).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the clock indicating to the athletes that they have a certain time to take their

 

  1. Judge in charge of

 

Note (i): This is the traditional setting-up of the officials. In major competitions, where a data system and electronic scoreboards are available, specialised personnel are certainly required. To be clear in these cases, the progress and scoring of a Field Event is followed by both the recorder and by the data system.

 

Note (ii): Officials and equipment must be placed in such a way as not to obstruct the athlete’s way nor impede the view of the spectators.

 

Note (iii): A space must be reserved for a wind-sock to indicate the wind direction and strength.

 

28.             (Rule 183) Pole Vault Competition

  • Athletes may have the crossbar moved only in the direction of the landing area so that the edge of the crossbar nearest the athlete can be positioned at any point from that directly above the back end of the box to a point 80cm in the direction of the landing

 

An athlete shall, before the competition starts, inform the appropriate official of the position of the crossbar they require for their first trial and this position shall be recorded.

 

If subsequently an athlete wants to make any changes, they should immediately inform the appropriate official before the crossbar has been set in accordance with their initial wishes. Failure to do this shall lead to the start of their time limit.

 

Note: A line, 10mm wide and of distinguishable colour, shall be drawn at right angles to the axis of the runway, in line with the back end of the box (“zero” line). A similar line, up to 50mm wide, shall appear on the surface of the landing area and be prolonged as far as the outside edge of the uprights. The edge of the line nearer to the approaching athlete coincides with the back end of the box.

 

  • An athlete fails if:

 

  • after the vault, the bar does not remain on both pegs because of the action of an athlete whilst vaulting; or

 

  • they touch the ground, including the landing area, beyond the vertical plane through the back end of the box with any part of their body or with the pole, without first clearing the bar; or

 

  • after leaving the ground, they place their lower hand above the upper one or moves the upper hand higher on the pole; or

 

  • during the vault, they steady or replace the bar with their hand(s).

 

Note (i): It is not a failure if an athlete runs outside the white lines marking the runway at any point.

 

Note (ii) It is not a failure if the pole touches the landing mats, in the course of trial, after properly being planted in the box.

 

The following should be noted in applying and interpreting Rule 28.2 of the Technical Rules:

 

  1. the bar must be dislodged because of the action of the athlete “whilst vaulting”. So, if the athlete after correctly retrieving their pole (so as not to infringe Rule 28.4 of the Technical Rules) were then to hit the crossbar or the uprights with the pole so that it was dislodged, this would not amount to a failure since it was not because of the action of the athlete whilst vaulting, unless the crossbar was still moving and, as a result, the Judge had not yet raised the white flag;
  2. to take into account the effect of Note (ii) as there will be many occasions when the pole on bending will touch the landing area beyond the zero line;
  3. to be aware of the possibility that the athlete can actually take-off it such a way that their body or the bend of the pole will penetrate the vertical plane through the zero line but then they return to the runway without attempting to clear the bar. Provided that they have time left for their trial and they did not touch the ground beyond the zero line, they may continue with the trial. This also applies in cases where the athlete during the time for his trial is, for any reason, placing the pole in the box or otherwise through the vertical plane of the zero line and the pole touches the ground beyond the zero line, this is a failure;
  4. Judges must take particular care to detect whether any action prohibited under Rule 28.2.4 of the Technical Rules has occurred. Not only does it mean that the relevant Judge must keep an eye on the vaulter throughout the vault, but they must determine that such action was not merely incidental touching as the athlete cleared the bar. In general for Rule 28.2.4 of the Technical Rules to be applied there should be some direct action on behalf of the athlete to steady or replace the
  5. there is a common practice where athletes return to the box after a trial (whether it is a clearance or failure) and place the pole in the box to check their take-off position. Provided this occurs after the trial is completed in accordance with Rule 25.8 of the Technical Rules and before the time for the next athlete’s trial begins and does not otherwise delay the conduct of the competition, it is

 

  • Athletes may, during the competition, place a substance on their hands or on the pole, in order to obtain a better grip. The use of gloves is

 

Whilst there is no prohibition on wearing gloves or the use of permitted substances on gloves this practice should be monitored by Referees in case the practice causes concern and gives rise to possible issue of unfair assistance.

 

  • After the release of the pole, no one including the athlete shall be allowed to touch the pole unless it is falling away from the bar or uprights. If it is touched, however,  and the Referee is of the opinion that, but for the intervention, the bar would have been knocked off, the vault shall be recorded as a

 

This is one of the few rules where behaviour by an official can result in a failure being called. It is important therefore that the upright Judges are diligent in ensuring that they do not touch or catch a pole unless it is clearly falling away from the crossbar and/or uprights.

 

  • If, in making a trial, an athlete’s pole is broken, it shall not be counted as a failure and they shall be awarded a replacement

 

Runway

 

  • The minimum length of the runway, measured from the “zero” line, shall be 40m and where conditions permit, 45m. It shall have a width of 1.22m ± 0.01m and shall be marked by white lines 50mm in

 

Note: For all tracks constructed before 1 January 2004 the runway may have a width of maximum 1.25m. However, when such a runway is fully resurfaced, the lane width shall comply with this Rule.

 

  • The maximum lateral inclination of the runway should be 1:100 (1%) unless special circumstances exist which justify World Athletics providing an exemption and, in the last 40m of the runway, the overall downward inclination in the direction of running shall not exceed 1:1000 (0.1%).

 

Apparatus

 

  • The take-off for the Pole Vault shall be from a box. It shall be constructed of suitable material, with rounded or soft upper edges and shall be sunk level with the runway. It shall be 1.00m in length, measured along the inside of the bottom of the box, 0.60m in width at the front end and tapering to 0.15m in width at the bottom of the stop board. The length of the box at runway level and the depth of the stop board are determined by the angle of 105° formed between the base and the stop board. (Tolerances on dimensions and angles: ± 0.01m and − 0°/ + 1°)

 

The base of the box shall slope from runway level at the front end to a vertical distance below ground level of 0.20m at the point where it meets the stop board. The box should be constructed in such a manner that the sides slope outwards and end next to the stop board at an angle of approximately 120° to the base.

 

 

 

Figure (a) TR28 (Rule 183) – Pole Vault box (top and side view)

 

Note: An athlete may place padding around the box for additional protection during any of their trials. The placement of such equipment shall be done within the time allowed for the athlete’s trial and shall be removed by the athlete immediately after their trial is completed. At competitions under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition this shall be provided by the organisers.

 

  • Any style of uprights or posts may be used, provided they are rigid. The metallic structure of the base and the lower part of the uprights above the landing area must be covered with padding of appropriate material in order to provide protection to the athletes and the

 

  • The crossbar shall rest on horizontal pegs so that if it is touched by an athlete or their pole, it will fall easily to the ground in the direction of the landing area. The pegs shall be without notches or indentations of any kind, of uniform thickness throughout and not more than 13mm in diameter.

 

They shall not extend more than 55mm from the supporting members, which shall be smooth. The vertical peg backings, which shall also be smooth and be constructed in a way that the crossbar cannot rest on the top of them, shall extend 35mm-40mm above the pegs.

 

The distance between the pegs shall be 4.28m-4.37m. The pegs shall not be of, or covered with, rubber or with any other material which has the effect of increasing the friction between them and the surface of the bar, nor may they have any kind of springs. The pegs should support the bar in the middle of the end pieces. The crossbar supports shall be at the same height above the surfaces supporting the two upright metal bases.

 

Note: To lessen the chance of injury to an athlete by their falling on the feet of the uprights, the pegs supporting the crossbar may be placed upon extension arms permanently attached to the uprights, thus allowing the uprights to be placed wider apart, without increasing the length of the crossbar (see Figure (b) TR28).

 

 

 

Figure (b) TR28 (Rule 183) – Pole Vault crossbar support

(view from landing area and top view)

 

Vaulting Poles

 

  • Athletes may use their own poles. No athlete shall use any other athlete’s pole except with the consent of the

 

The pole may be of any material or combination of materials and of any length or diameter, but the basic surface must be smooth.

 

The pole may have layers of tape at the grip end (to protect the hand) and of tape and/or any other suitable material at the bottom end (to protect the pole). Any tape at the grip end must be uniform except for incidental overlapping and must not result in any sudden change in diameter, such as the creation of any “ring” on the pole.

 

Only “regular” taping in accordance with the Rule is allowed at the grip end of the pole – rings, loops and the like are not permitted. There be any restriction on how far up or down  the pole such taping extends but it should be for the purpose for which it is intended – to protect the hand. There is, however, no restriction at the bottom end of the pole and, in general, any form of taping or protection is permitted there – provided it does not give the athlete any advantage.

 

Landing Area

 

  • For competitions under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, the landing area shall be not smaller than 6m long (behind the zero line and excluding the front pieces) x 6m wide x 0.8m high. The front pieces must be at least 2m

 

The sides of the landing area nearest to the box shall be placed 0.10m to 0.15m from the box and shall slope away from the box at an angle of approximately 45° (see Figure (c) TR28).

 

For other competitions, the landing area should measure not less than 5m long (excluding the front pieces) x 5m wide x 0.8m high.

 

 

 
  

Figure (c) TR28 (Rule 183) – Pole Vault landing area (top and side views) Team of Officials

For a Pole Vault event, it is recommended to allocate the available officials as follows:

 

  1. The Chief Judge will watch over the whole of the event and verify the measurements. They must be provided with two flags – white to indicate if the trial is valid and red if it is a failure. They must place themselves so as to manage two matters in particular:

 

  1. Frequently it happens that the cross-bar having been touched by an athlete trembles on the supports. The Chief Judge, depending on the position of the cross-bar, must decide when the vibrating of the bar must be stopped and the appropriate flag raised – particularly the special situations covered in Rules

26.10 and 28.4 of the Technical Rules; and

 

  1. Since before the take-off, the athlete may not touch the ground beyond the vertical plane through the back end of the box they must place themselves in such manner as to be able to determine

 

  1. Two Judges, one on either side, in line with the back of the box, in charge of replacing the crossbar when it falls, and assisting the Chief Judge in applying the above Rules. They are also responsible for the correct placement of the upright as notified by the recorder according to the wishes of the

 

  1. Judge – a recorder noting the upright positions requested by the athletes, scoring the results sheet and calling the upright position and then each athlete (and the one who is to follow).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the scoreboard (trial-number-result).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the clock indicating to the athletes that they have a certain time to take their

 

  1. Judge in charge of

 

Note (i): This is the traditional setting-up of the officials. In major competitions, where a data system and electronic scoreboards are available, specialised personnel are certainly required. To be clear in these cases, the progress and scoring of a Field Event is followed by both the recorder and by the data system.

 

Note (ii): Officials and equipment must be placed in such a way as not to obstruct the athlete’s way nor impede the view of the spectators.

 

Note (iii): A space must be reserved for a wind-sock to indicate the wind direction and strength.

 

Horizontal Jumps

 

  1. (Rule 184) General Conditions – Horizontal Jumps Runway
    • The minimum length of the runway, measured from the relevant take-off line shall be 40m and, where conditions permit, 45m. It shall have a width of 1.22m ± 0.01m and shall be marked by white lines 50mm in

 

Note: For all tracks constructed before 1 January 2004 the runway may have a width of maximum 1.25m. However when such a runway is fully resurfaced, the lane width shall comply with this Rule.

 

  • The maximum lateral inclination of the runway should be 1:100 (1%) unless special circumstances exist which justify World Athletics providing an exemption and, in the last 40m of the runway, the overall downward inclination in the direction of running shall not exceed 1:1000 (0.1%).

 

Take-off Board

 

  • The take-off shall be marked by a board sunk level with the runway and the surface of the landing area. The edge of the board which is nearer to the landing area shall be the take-off line. Immediately beyond the take-off line there may be placed a plasticine indicator board for the assistance of the

 

Note: Where in the construction of the runway and/or take-off board there was previously provision for the placement of a plasticine indicator board and such board is not used, this recess should be filled by a blanking board flush with the take-off board.

 

  • The take-off board shall be rectangular, made of wood or other suitable rigid material in which the spikes of an athlete’s shoe will grip and not skid and shall measure 1.22m ± 0.01m long, 0.20m ± 0.002m wide and not more than 0.10m deep. It shall be white. In order to ensure that the take-off line is clearly distinguishable and in contrast to the take-off board, the ground immediately beyond the take-off line shall be in a colour other than

 

  • The use of video or other technology, to assist the Judges in deciding the application of Rule 30.1 of the Technical Rules, is strongly recommended at all levels of competition. However, if no technology is available, a plasticine indicator board may still be

 

The plasticine indicator board shall consist of a rigid board, 0.10m ± 0.002m wide and 1.22m ± 0.01m long made of wood or any other suitable material and shall be painted in a contrasting colour to the take-off board. Where possible, the plasticine should be of a third contrasting colour. The board shall be mounted in a recess or shelf in the runway, on the side of the take-off board nearer the landing area. The surface shall rise from the level of the take-off board to a height of 7mm ± 1mm. The edges shall be cut away such that in relation to the recess, when filled with plasticine, the surface of the plasticine nearer to the take-off line shall be at an angle of 90° (see Figure (a) TR29).

 

 

 

Figure (a) TR29 (Rule 184) – Take-off board and plasticine indicator board

[From 1 November 2020]

 

When mounted in this recess, the whole assembly shall be sufficiently rigid to accept the full force of the athlete’s foot.

 

The surface of the board beneath the plasticine shall be of a material in which the spikes of an athlete’s shoe will grip and not skid.

 

The plasticine can be smoothed off by means of a roller or suitably shaped scraper for the purposes of removing the footprint of an athlete.

 

[Rules 29.3 to 29.5 amended in June 2019 and in force from 1 November 2020. For current edition of Rule, please refer to Competition Rule 184.3.]

 

Landing Area

 

  • The landing area shall have a minimum width of 2.75m and a maximum width of 3m. It shall, if possible, be so placed that the middle of the runway, if extended, would coincide with the middle of the landing

 

Note: When the axis of the runway is not in line with the centre line of the landing area, a tape, or if necessary, two tapes, shall be placed along the landing area so that the above is achieved (see Figure (b) TR29).

 

 

 
  

 

Figure (b) TR29 (Rule 184) – Centralised Long Jump /Triple Jump landing area

 

Where new facilities are developed at which it is envisaged that visually impaired athletes will compete, at least one pit should be built with an increased width (3.50m instead of maximum 3.00m as in the Rules) as recommended by IPC.

 

  • The landing area should be filled with soft damp sand, the top surface of which shall be level with the take-off

 

Distance Measurement

 

  • In all horizontal jumping events, distances shall be recorded to the nearest 0.01m below the distance measured if the distance measured is not a whole

 

  • The measurement of each jump shall be made immediately after each valid trial (or after an immediate oral protest made under Rule 8.5 of the Technical Rules) from the nearest break in the landing area made by any part of the body, or anything that was attached to the body at the time it made a mark, to the take-off line, or take-off line extended. The measurement shall be taken perpendicular to the take-off line or its extension.

 

As long as no irregularity has been committed, each trial must be measured whatever the distance reached, including for the reasons that other trial measurements may become critical in determining countbacks or whether an athlete will proceed to subsequent rounds.

 

Except where Rule 8.5 of the Technical Rules is applied, under normal practice no trial during which an irregularity has been committed should be measured. Judges should carefully use their discretion in applying any alternate practice and usually only in special cases.

 

Unless video measuring is being used, for every valid trial a marker (usually metal) should be placed in a vertical position at the place of the imprint left by the athlete in the landing area nearest to the take-off line. The marker is passed through the loop at the end of the graduated metal tape so that the “zero” is on the mark. The tape should be pulled out horizontally taking care not to place it on any rise in the ground.

 

Wind Measurement

 

  • The wind gauge shall be the same as described in Rules 17.8 and 17.9 of the Technical Rules. It shall be operated as described in Rules 17.11 and 29.12 of the Technical Rules and read as per Rule 17.13 of the Technical

 

  • The relevant Field Events Referee shall ensure that the wind gauge is placed 20m from the take-off line. The measuring plane shall be positioned 1.22m ± 0.05m high and not more than 2m away from the

 

  • The wind velocity shall be measured for a period of 5 seconds from the time an athlete passes a mark placed alongside the runway, for the Long Jump 40m from the take-off line and for the Triple Jump 35m. If an athlete runs less than 40m or 35m, as appropriate, the wind velocity shall be measured from the time they commence their run.

 

30.             (Rule 185) Long Jump Competition

  • An athlete fails if:

 

  • they while taking off, break the vertical plane of the take-off line with any part of their foot / shoe, whether running up without jumping or in the act of jumping; or

 

[Rule 30.1.1 amended in June 2019 and in force from 1 November 2020. For the current edition of rule please refer to Competition Rule 185.1.]

 

  • they take off from outside either end of the board, whether beyond or before the extension of the take-off line; or

 

  • they employ any form of somersaulting whilst running up or in the act of jumping; or

 

  • after taking off, but before their first contact with the landing area, they touch the runway or the ground outside the runway or outside the landing area; or

 

  • in the course of landing (including any overbalancing), they touch the border of, or the ground outside, the landing area closer to the take-off line than the nearest break made in the sand; or

 

  • they leave the landing area in any manner other than that described in Rule
  • of the Technical

 

  • When leaving the landing area, an athlete’s first contact by foot with its border or the ground outside shall be further from the take-off line than the nearest break in the sand (which may be any mark made on overbalancing completely inside the landing area or when walking back, closer to the take-off line than the initial break on landing).

 

Note: This first contact is considered leaving.

 

  • An athlete shall not be regarded to have failed if:

 

  • they run outside the white lines marking the runway at any point; or

 

  • except as described in Rule 30.1.2 of the Technical Rules, they take off before reaching the board; or

 

  • under Rule 30.1.2 of the Technical Rules a part of their shoe / foot is touching the ground outside either end of the take-off board, before the take-off line; or

 

  • if in the course of landing, they touch, with any part of their body, or anything attached to it at that moment, the border of, or the ground outside the landing area, unless such contact contravenes Rule 30.1.4 or 30.1.5 of the Technical Rules; or

 

  • they walk back through the landing area after having left the landing area in the manner described in Rule 30.2 of the Technical

 

Take-off Line

 

  • The distance between the take-off line and the far end of the landing area shall be at least 10m and, where possible,

 

  • The take-off line shall be placed between 1m and 3m from the nearer end of the landing

 

Team of Officials

 

For a Long Jump or Triple Jump event, it is recommended to allocate the available officials as follows:

 

  1. The Chief Judge will watch over the whole of the

 

  1. Judge checking whether the take-off has been made correctly and measuring the trial. They must be provided with two flags – white to indicate if the trial is valid and red if it is a failure. When the jump has been measured, it is advised that the Judge stands in front of the take-off board, holding the red flag, while the landing area is levelled and, if relevant, the plasticine board is replaced. A cone may be used instead or in addition. (In some competitions this position is assumed by the Chief Judge of the )

 

  1. Judge at the landing point determining the position of the nearest break in the landing area to the take-off line, to insert the spike/prism and then, if a tape is being used, hold the tape on the 0. When video measuring is being used, no judge will normally be required on site for this purpose. When an optic system of measuring is being used on site, two judges are needed at the landing point, one to plant the marker in the sand, the other one to read the result on the optic

 

  1. Judge – a recorder scoring the results sheet and calling each athlete (and the one who is to follow).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the scoreboard (trial-number-result).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the wind-gauge positioned at a point 20 metres from the take-off line.

 

  1. One or more Judges or assistants in charge of levelling the landing area after each trial.

 

  1. Judge or an assistant in charge of replacing the

 

  1. Judge in charge of the clock indicating to the athletes that they have a certain time to take their

 

  1. Judge in charge of

 

Note (i): This is the traditional setting-up of the officials. In major competitions, where a data system and electronic scoreboards are available, specialised personnel are certainly required. To be clear in these cases, the progress and scoring of a Field Event is followed by both the recorder and by the data system.

 

Note (ii): Officials and equipment must be placed in such a way as not to obstruct the athlete’s way nor impede the view of the spectators.

 

Note (iii): A space must be reserved for a wind-sock to indicate the wind direction and strength.

 

31.             (Rule 186) Triple Jump

 

Rules 29 and 30 of the Technical Rules apply to Triple Jump with the following variations:

 

Competition

 

  • The Triple Jump shall consist of a hop, a step and a jump in that

 

  • The hop shall be made so that an athlete lands first on the same foot as that from which they have taken off; in the step they shall land on the other foot, from which, subsequently, the jump is

 

It shall not be considered a failure if an athlete, while jumping, touches the ground with the “sleeping” leg.

 

Note: Rule 30.1.4 of the Technical Rules does not apply to the normal landings from the hop and step phases.

 

It should be noted that it is not a failure (for that reason alone) if the athlete:

 

  1. touches the white lines or the ground outside between the take-off line and the landing area; or
  2. lands in the pit in the step phase through no fault of their own (i.e. if the Judge incorrectly indicated the take-off board) – in which such case the Referee would normally offer the athlete a replacement

 

It is, however a failure if the landing of the jump is not within the landing area.

 

Take-off Line

 

  • The distance between the take-off line for men and the far end of the landing area shall be at least

 

  • For International Competitions, there should be a separate take-off board for men and women. The take-off line shall not be less than 13m for men and 11m for women from the nearer end of the landing area. For any other competition, this distance shall be appropriate for the level of

 

  • Between the take-off board and the landing area there shall, for the step and jump phases, be a take-off area of 1.22m ± 0.01m wide providing firm and uniform

 

Note: For all tracks constructed before 1 January 2004, this take-off area may have a width of maximum 1.25m. However, when such a runway is fully resurfaced, the lane width shall comply with this Rule.

 

Throwing Events

 

  1. (Rule 187) General Conditions – Throwing Events Official Implements
    • In all International Competitions, the implements used shall comply with current World Athletics specifications. Only World Athletics certified implements may be used. The following table shows the implement to be used by each age group:

 

ImplementWomenWomenMenMenMen
 U18U20/SeniorU18U20Senior
Shot3.000kg4.000kg5.000kg6.000kg7.260kg
Discus1.000kg1.000kg1.500kg1.750kg2.000kg
Hammer3.000kg4.000kg5.000kg6.000kg7.260kg
Javelin500g600g700g800g800g

 

Note: The current standard forms required to be used for the certification and renewal application as well as the Certification System Procedures are available from the World Athletics Office, or may be downloaded from the World Athletics website.

 

  • Except as provided below, all such implements shall be provided by the Organisers. The Technical Delegate(s) may, based on the applicable regulations of each competition, allow athletes to use their own personal implements or those provided by a supplier, provided that such implements are World Athletics certified, checked and marked as approved by the Organisers before the competition and made available to all athletes. Such implements will not be accepted if the same model is already on the list of those provided by the Organisers. Unless the Technical Delegate decides otherwise, not more than two implements may be submitted by any athlete for any throwing event in which they are

 

Note: “World Athletics certified” implements may include older models that previously held a certificate but are not in production any longer.

 

It is becoming increasingly common for Organisers to provide a lesser range of implements than in the past (largely due to the cost of purchases). This increases the responsibility of Technical Managers and their assistants to closely check all personal implements presented for competitions – to ensure that they comply with the Rules as well as being on the World Athletics list of certified products. Implements which do not currently have but have previously had a World Athletics certificate may be accepted for competition if they comply with the Rules.

 

  • No modification shall be made to any implements during the

 

Assistance

 

  • The following shall be considered assistance and are therefore not allowed:

 

  • The taping of two or more fingers together. If taping is used on the hands and fingers, it may be continuous provided that as a result no two or more fingers are taped together in such a way that the fingers cannot move

 

individually. The taping should be shown to the Chief Judge before the event starts.

 

  • The use of any device of any kind, including weights attached to the body, which in any way provides assistance when making a

 

  • The use of gloves except in the Hammer Throw. In this case, the gloves shall be smooth on the back and on the front and the tips of the glove fingers, other than the thumb, shall be

 

  • The spraying or spreading by an athlete of any substance in the circle or on their shoes nor the roughening of the surface of the

 

Note: If the Judges are aware, they shall direct any athlete not complying with this rule to correct the situation. If the athlete does not, such trial(s) shall be a failure. If a trial is completed before the non-compliance is noticed, the Referee shall decide what action shall be taken. In all cases considered serious enough, Rule 18.5 of the Competition Rules and Rule 7.2 of the Technical Rules may also be applied.

 

  • The following shall not be considered assistance and are therefore allowed:

 

  • The use by an athlete, in order to obtain a better grip, of a suitable substance on their hands only or in the case of a hammer thrower on their gloves. A shot putter may use such substances on their

 

  • The placement by an athlete, in the Shot Put and Discus Throw, on the implement, chalk or a similar

 

All substances used on the hands, gloves and on the implements shall be easily removable from the implement using a wet cloth and shall not leave any residue. If this is not followed, the note to Rule 32.4 of the Technical Rules shall be applied.

 

  • The use of taping on the hands and fingers that is not in contravention of Rule 32.4.1 of the Technical

 

Throwing Circle

 

  • The rim of the circle shall be made of band iron, steel or other suitable material, the top of which shall be flush with the ground outside. It shall be at least 6mm thick and shall be white. The ground surrounding the circle may be concrete, synthetic, asphalt, wood or any other suitable

 

The interior of the circle may be constructed of concrete, asphalt or some other firm but not slippery material. The surface of this interior generally shall be level and 20mm ± 6mm lower than the upper edge of the rim of the circle.

 

In the Shot Put, a portable circle meeting these specifications is permissible.

 

  • The inside diameter of the circle shall be 2.135m ± 0.005m in the Shot Put and the Hammer Throw and 2.50m ± 0.005m in the Discus

 

The hammer may be thrown from the discus circle provided the diameter of this circle is reduced from 2.50m to 2.135m by placing a circular ring inside.

 

Note: The circular ring should preferably be coloured other than white so that the

 

white lines required by Rule 32.8 of the Technical Rules be clearly visible.

 
  

Figure (a) TR32 (Rule 187) – Layout of Shot Put circle

 

  • A white line 50mm wide shall be drawn from the top of the rim extending for at least 0.75m on either side of the circle. The white line may be painted or made of wood or other suitable material. The rear edge of the white line shall form a prolongation of a theoretical line through the centre of the circle at right angles to the centre line of the landing

 

 

 
  

 

Figure (b) TR32 (Rule 187) – Layout of Discus Throw circle

 

 

 

Figure (c) TR32 (Rule 187) – Layout of Hammer Throw circle

 

 

 
  

Figure (d) TR32 (Rule 187) – Layout of concentric circles for Discus and Hammer Throw circle

 

Javelin Throw Runway

 

  • The minimum length of the runway shall be 30m except in competitions held under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, where

 

the minimum shall be 33.50m. Where conditions permit, the minimum length should be 36.50m.

 

It shall be marked by two parallel white lines 50mm wide and 4m apart. The throw shall be made from behind an arc of a circle drawn with a radius of 8m. The arc shall consist of an at least 70mm wide strip painted or made of wood or a suitable non- corrodible material like plastic. It shall be white and be flush with the ground. Lines shall be drawn from the extremities of the arc at right angles to the parallel lines marking the runway. These lines shall be white, at least 0.75m long and at least 70mm wide. The maximum lateral inclination of the runway should be 1:100 (1%) unless special circumstances exist which justify World Athletics providing an exemption and, in the last 20m of the runway, the overall downward inclination in the direction of running shall not exceed 1:1000 (0.1%).

 

 

 
  

Figure (e) TR32 (Rule 187) – Javelin Throw runway and landing sector (not to scale)

 

Landing Sector

 

  • The landing sector shall consist of cinders or grass or other suitable material on which the implement makes an

 

  • The maximum overall downward inclination of the landing sector, in the throwing direction, shall not exceed 1:1000 (0.1%).

 

  • Landing Sector markings:

 

  • Except for the Javelin Throw, the landing sector shall be marked with white lines 50mm wide at an angle of 34.92° such that the inner edge of lines, if extended, would pass through the centre of the

 

Note: The 34.92° sector may be laid out accurately by making the distance between the two points on the sector lines 20m from the centre of the circle 12m ± 0.05m (20m × 0.60m) apart. Thus, for every 1m from the centre of the circle, the distance across shall be increased by 0.60m.

 

  • In the Javelin Throw, the landing sector shall be marked with white lines 50mm wide such that the inner edge of the lines, if extended, would pass through the two intersections of the inner edges of the arc, and the parallel lines marking the runway and intersect at the centre of the circle of which the arc is part (see Figure (e) TR32). The sector angle is thus 96°.

 

The landing sector shall be of an even surface soft enough to ensure that the place of the initial fall of the implement can be clearly established by the Judges. The landing surface should not allow the implement bounce backwards thus creating a risk that the measuring point is obliterated.

 

Trials

 

  • In the Shot Put, Discus Throw and Hammer Throw, implements shall be thrown from a circle, and in the Javelin Throw, from a runway. In the case of trials made from a circle, an athlete shall commence their trial from a stationary position inside the circle. An athlete is allowed to touch the inside of the rim. In the Shot Put, they are also allowed to touch the inside of the stop board described in Rule 33.2 of the Technical Rules.

 

There is no restriction on how, or from which direction, an athlete may enter the circle. The relevant requirement is that once inside they must adopt a stationary position before commencing their trial.

 

  • It shall be a failure if an athlete in the course of a trial:

 

  • releases the shot or the javelin other than as permitted under Rules 33.1 and 38.1 of the Technical Rules;

 

  • after they have stepped into the circle and begun to make a throw, touches with any part of their body the top (or the top inside edge) of the rim or the ground outside the circle;

 

Note: However, it will not be considered a failure if the touch is made without providing any propulsion and occurs during any first rotation at a point completely behind the white line which is drawn outside the circle running, theoretically, through the centre of the circle.

 

  • in the Shot Put, touches with any part of their body any part of the stop board other than its inner side (excluding its top edge which is considered to be part of the top);

 

  • in the Javelin Throw, touches with any part of their body the lines which mark the runway or the ground

 

Note: It will not be considered a failure if the discus or any part of the hammer strikes the cage after release, then lands within the landing sector outside the cage, provided that no other Rule is infringed.

 

It is clarified that the top inside edges of the rim of the circle and of the stop board are considered to be part of the top of the rim and stop board respectively. This means that should an athlete make contact with the top inside edge of either the rim or the stop-board then they will be considered thereby to have made a failure.

 

The addition of the Note to Rule 32.14.2 of the Technical Rules applies to rotational techniques used by athletes in Shot Put, Discus Throw or Hammer Throw. It should be interpreted that any “incidental” touch of the top of the rim or the ground outside in respect of the back half of the circle during the first rotation should not, of itself, be regarded as a failure. However it is clear that any technique which thereby obtains an advantage through leverage or propulsion would constitute a failure.

 

  • Provided that, in the course of a trial, the Rules relative to each throwing event have not been infringed, an athlete may interrupt a trial once started, may lay the implement down inside or outside the circle or runway and may leave the circle or runway.

 

Note: All the moves permitted by this paragraph shall be included in the maximum time for a trial given in Rule 25.17 of the Technical Rules.

 

In these circumstances, there is no restriction on how, or from which direction, an athlete may leave the circle or runway if they choose to do. The relevant requirement is that no other Rule is or has already been infringed.

 

  • It shall be a failure if the shot, the discus, the hammer head or the head of the javelin in contacting the ground when it first lands touches the sector line or the ground or any object (other than the cage as provided in the Note to Rule 32.14 of the Technical Rules) outside the sector

 

It should be noted that for the purposes of this Rule, the position of the hammer wire or handle is not relevant. For example, the wire could land or be laying on or outside the sector line and it would not matter, provided that the head had landed correctly. The same applies  in respective of determining the point from which the measurement is taken under Rule

32.20.1 of the Technical Rules.

 

  • It shall be a failure if the athlete leaves the circle or runway before the implement has touched the ground, or

 

  • for throws made from a circle, if when leaving the circle, the athlete’s first contact with the top of the rim or the ground outside the circle is not completely behind the white line which is drawn outside the circle running, theoretically, through the centre of the circle;

 

Note: The first contact with the top of the rim or the ground outside the

 

circle is considered leaving.

 

  • in the case of the Javelin Throw, if, when leaving the runway, the athlete’s first contact with the parallel lines or the ground outside the runway is not completely behind the white line of the arc or the lines drawn from the extremities of the arc at right angles to the parallel lines. Once the implement has touched the ground, an athlete will also be considered to have left the runway correctly, upon making contact with or behind a line (painted, or theoretical and indicated by markers beside the runway) drawn across the runway, four metres back from the end points of the throwing arc. Should an athlete be behind that line and inside the runway at the moment the implement touches the ground, they shall be considered to have left the runway

 

The second and third sentences in Rule 32.17.2 of the Technical Rules are designed to speed up the judging process and not to create an additional method of calling a failure on the athlete. The purpose of the “4m marks” is solely to enable the Judges to raise the white flag and begin measuring the trial once the athlete retreats behind this point (in the same  way as they would do if they had otherwise correctly left the runway). The only requirement is that there is no other reason for calling a failure and that the implement has touched the ground before the white flag is raised. Necessarily, if the athlete for whatever reason never progresses past the “4m marks” when making their throw then the flag can be raised once the implement has landed.

 

  • After each throw, implements shall be carried back to the area next to the circle or runway and never thrown

 

Distance Measurement

 

  • In all throwing events, distances shall be recorded to the nearest 0.01m below the distance measured if the distance measured is not a whole

 

  • The measurement of each throw shall be made immediately after each valid trial (or after an immediate oral protest made under Rule 8.5 of the Technical Rules) from the nearest mark made in contacting the ground when it first lands by:

 

  • the shot, discus and hammer head, to the inside of the circumference of the circle along a line to the centre of the circle; or

 

  • the head of the javelin to the inside edge of the arc, along a line to the centre of the circle of which the arc is

 

As long as no irregularity has been committed, each trial must be measured whatever the distance reached, including for the reasons that other trial measurements may become critical in determining countbacks or whether an athlete will proceed to subsequent rounds.

 

Except where Rule 8.5 of the Technical Rules is applied, under normal practice no trial during which an irregularity has been committed should be measured. Judges should carefully use their discretion in applying any alternate practice and usually only in special cases.

 

Unless video measuring is being used, for every valid trial a marker (usually metal) should be placed in a vertical position at the place of the imprint left by the implement in the landing area nearest to the arc. The marker is passed through the loop at the end of the graduated

 

metal tape so that the “zero” is on the mark. The tape should be pulled out horizontally taking care not to place it on any rise in the ground.

 

33.             (Rule 188) Shot Put Competition

  • The shot shall be put from the shoulder with one hand only. At the time an athlete takes a stance in the circle to commence a put, the shot shall touch or be in close proximity to the neck or the chin and the hand shall not be dropped below this position during the action of putting. The shot shall not be taken behind the line of the shoulders.

 

Note: Cartwheeling techniques are not permitted.

 

Stop Board

 

  • The stop board shall be white and made of wood or other suitable material in the shape of an arc so that the inner surface aligns with the inner edge of the rim of the circle and is perpendicular to the surface of the circle. It shall be placed so that its centre coincides with the centre line of the landing sector (see Figure TR33), and shall be firmly fixed to the ground or to the concrete surrounding the

 

 

 
  

Figure TR33 (Rule 188) – Shot Put stop board (top and side view)

 

Note: Stop boards to the 1983/84 World Athletics specifications remain acceptable.

 

  • The stop board shall measure 0.112m to 0.30m wide, with a chord of 1.21m ± 0.01m for an arc of the same radius as the circle and 0.10m ± 0.008m high in relation to the level of the inside of the circle adjacent to the stop

 

Shot

 

  • The shot shall be of solid iron, brass or any metal not softer than brass, or a shell of such metal filled with lead or other solid material. It shall be spherical in shape and its surface finish shall be

 

Information for manufacturers: to be smooth, the surface average height must be less than 1.6µm, i.e. a roughness number N7 or less.

 

  • The shot shall conform to the following specifications:

 

Minimum weight for admission to competition and acceptance of a Record:

 

 

Diameter:

3.000kg4.000kg5.000kg6.000kg7.260kg
Minimum85mm95mm100mm105mm110mm
Maximum110mm110mm120mm125mm130mm

 

Team of Officials

 

For a Shot Put event, it is recommended to allocate the available officials as follows:

 

  1. The Chief Judge will watch over the whole of the

 

  1. Two Judges checking whether the put has been made correctly and measuring the trial. One must be provided with two flags – white to indicate if the trial is valid and red if it is a failure. When the put has been measured, it is advised that the Judge stands in the circle holding the red flag, while the implement is returned and the landing area is cleared. A cone may be placed in the circle instead. (In some competitions this position is assumed by the Chief Judge of the )

 

Where EDM is not in use, the second Judge should pull through and hold the measuring tape in such a way that it passes through the centre of the circle.

 

  1. Judge immediately after the throw placing a marker indicating the point from which the trial is to be

 

  1. Judge positioning the spike/prism at the point where the marker has been placed ensuring the tape is on the zero

 

  1. Judge in charge of retrieving the implements and returning them to the implement stand or placing them in the return

 

  1. Judge – a recorder scoring the results sheet and calling each athlete (and the one who is to follow).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the scoreboard (trial-number-result).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the clock indicating to the athletes that they have a certain time to take their

 

  1. Judge in charge of

 

  1. Judge in charge of the implement

 

Note (i): This is the traditional setting-up of the officials. In major competitions, where a data system and electronic scoreboards are available, specialised personnel are certainly required. To be clear in these cases, the progress and scoring of a Field Event is followed by both the recorder and by the data system.

 

Note (ii): Officials and equipment must be placed in such a way as not to obstruct the athlete’s way nor impede the view of the spectators.

 

34.             (Rule 189) Discus Throw Discus

  • The body of the discus may be solid or hollow and shall be made of wood, or other suitable material, with a metal rim, the edge of which shall be circular. The cross section of the edge shall be rounded in a true circle having a radius of approximately 6mm. There may be circular plates set flush into the centre of the sides. Alternatively, the discus may be made without metal plates, provided that the equivalent area is flat and the measurements and total weight of the implement correspond to the specifications.

 

Each side of the discus shall be identical and shall be made without indentations, projections or sharp edges. The sides shall taper in a straight line from the beginning of the curve of the rim to a circle of a radius of 25mm to 28.5mm from the centre of the discus.

 

The profile of the discus shall be designed as follows. From the beginning of the curve of the rim the thickness of the discus increases regularly up to the maximum thickness D. This maximum value is achieved at a distance of 25 mm to 28.5mm from the axis of the discus Y. From this point up to the axis Y the thickness of the discus is constant. Upper and lower side of the discus must be identical; also the discus has to be symmetrical concerning rotation around the axis Y.

 

The discus, including the surface of the rim shall have no roughness and the finish shall be smooth (see Rule 33.4 of the Technical Rules) and uniform throughout.

 

 

 
  

 

Figure TR34 (Rule189) – Discus

 

  • The discus shall conform to the following specifications:

 

Minimum weight for admission to competition and acceptance of a Record 1.000kg    1.500kg                   1.750kg      2.000kg

Outside diameter of metal rim:

 

Minimum180mm200mm210mm219mm
Maximum182mm202mm212mm221mm
 

Diameter of metal plate or flat centre area:

 

Minimum

 

50mm

 

50mm

 

50mm

 

50mm

Maximum57mm57mm57mm57mm
 

Thickness of metal plate or flat centre area:

 

Minimum

 

37mm

 

38mm

 

41mm

 

44mm

Maximum39mm40mm43mm46mm
 

Thickness of metal rim (6mm from edge):

 

Minimum

 

12mm

 

12mm

 

12mm

 

12mm

Maximum13mm13mm13mm13mm

 

Team of Officials

 

For a Discus Throw event, it is recommended to allocate the available officials as follows:

 

  1. The Chief Judge will watch over the whole of the

 

  1. Two Judges checking whether the throw has been made correctly and measuring the trial. One must be provided with two flags – white to indicate if the trial is valid and red if it is a failure. When the throw has been measured, it is advised that the Judge stands at the entrance to the cage holding the red flag, while the implement is returned and the landing area is cleared. A cone may be placed at this point instead. (In some competitions this position is assumed by the Chief Judge of the )

 

Where EDM is not in use the second Judge should pull through and hold the measuring tape in such a way that it passes through the centre of the circle.

 

  1. Judge immediately after the throw placing a marker indicating the point from which the trial is to be measured. If the implement lands outside the sector either this Judge or the one with the spike/prism (whichever is closer to the line) should indicate this by holding their arm outstretched. No indication is required for a valid

 

  1. Judge positioning the spike/prism at the point where the marker has been placed ensuring the tape is on the zero

 

  1. one or more Judges or assistants in charge of retrieving the implements and returning them to the implement stand or placing them in the return Where a tape is

 

used for measurement, one of these Judges or assistants should ensure that the tape measure is taut in order to ensure a correct measurement.

 

  1. Judge – a recorder scoring the results sheet and calling each athlete (and the one who is to follow).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the scoreboard (trial-number-result).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the clock indicating to the athletes that they have a certain time to take their

 

  1. Judge in charge of

 

  1. Judge in charge of the implement

 

Note (i): This is the traditional setting-up of the officials. In major competitions, where a data system and electronic scoreboards are available, specialised personnel are certainly required. To be clear in these cases, the progress and scoring of a Field Event is followed by both the recorder and by the data system.

 

Note (ii): Officials and equipment must be placed in such a way as not to obstruct the athlete’s way nor impede the view of the spectators.

 

Note (iii): A space must be reserved for a wind-sock to indicate the wind direction and strength.

 

35.             (Rule 190) Discus Cage

 

  • All discus throws shall be made from an enclosure or cage to ensure the safety of spectators, officials and athletes. The cage specified in this Rule is intended for use when the event takes place in the Field of Play with other events taking place at the same time or when the event takes place outside the Field of Play with spectators present. Where this does not apply, and especially in training areas, a much simpler construction may be satisfactory. Advice is available, on request, from Members or from the World Athletics

 

Note (i): The hammer cage specified in Rule 37 of the Technical Rules may also be used for Discus Throw, either by installing 2.135/2.50m concentric circles, or by using the extension of the gates of that cage with a separate discus circle installed in front of the hammer circle.

 

Note (ii): The hammer cage movable panels may be used when the cage is being used for discus throw to limit the danger zones.

 

  • The cage should be designed, manufactured and maintained so as to be capable of stopping a 2kg discus moving at a speed of up to 25 metres per second. The arrangement should be such that there is no danger of ricocheting or rebounding back towards the athlete or over the top of the cage. Provided that it satisfies all the requirements of this Rule, any form of cage design and construction can be

 

  • The cage should be U-shaped in plan as shown in Figure TR35. The width of the mouth should be 6m, positioned 7m in front of the centre of the throwing circle. The end points of the 6m wide mouth shall be the inner edge of the cage netting. The height of the netting panels or draped netting at their lowest point should be at least 4m and it should be at least 6m for the 3m nearest the front of the cage on each side [from 1 January 2020].

 

Provision should be made in the design and construction of the cage to prevent a discus forcing its way through any joints in the cage or the netting or underneath the netting panels or draped netting.

 

Note (i): The arrangement of the rear panels/netting is not important provided the netting is a minimum of 3.00m away from the centre of the circle.

 

Note (ii): Innovative designs that provide the same or better degree of protection and do not increase the danger zone compared with conventional designs may be World Athletics certified.

 

Note (iii): The cage side, particularly alongside the track, may be lengthened and/or provided with (a) movable panel(s) and/or increased in height so as to provide greater protection to athletes competing on the adjoining track during a discus competition.

 

The netting must be fixed in a way that the width of the mouth is the same at each height of the netting. This applies also for the panels when put into a position according to Rule 37.4 of the Technical Rules Note (ii).

 

  • The netting for the cage can be made from suitable natural or synthetic fibre cord or, alternatively, from mild or high tensile steel wire. The maximum mesh size shall be 45mm for cord netting and 50mm for steel wire.

 

Note: Further specifications for the netting and safety inspection procedures are set out in the World Athletics Track and Field Facilities Manual.

 

  • The maximum danger sector for discus throws from this cage is approximately 69°, when used by both right and left handed throwers in the same competition (calculated by assuming that the discus is released from a circumscribed circle of 1.5m radius). The position and alignment of the cage in the Field of Play is, therefore, critical for its safe

 

Note: The method used to determine the danger zone is illustrated in Figure TR35.

 

 

 

Figure TR35 (Rule 190) – Cage for Discus Throw only (with cage dimensions to netting)

 

36.             (Rule 191) Hammer Throw Competition

  • An athlete, in their starting position prior to the preliminary swings or turns, is allowed to put the head of the hammer on the ground inside or outside the

 

  • It shall not be considered a failure if the head of the hammer touches the ground inside or outside the circle, or the top of the rim. The athlete may stop and begin the throw again, provided no other Rule has been

 

  • If the hammer breaks during a throw or while in the air, it shall not count as a failure, provided the trial was otherwise made in accordance with this Rule. Nor shall it count as a failure if an athlete thereby loses their balance and as a result contravenes any part of this Rule. In both cases the athlete shall be awarded a replacement

 

Hammer

 

  • The hammer shall consist of three main parts: a metal head, a wire and a

 

  • The head shall be of solid iron, brass or other metal not softer than brass or a shell of such metal filled with lead or other solid

 

The centre of gravity of the head shall be not more than 6mm from the centre of the sphere, i.e. – it must be possible to balance the head, less handle and wire, on a horizontal sharp-edged circular orifice 12mm in diameter (see Figure (a) TR36). If a filling is used, this shall be inserted in such manner that it is immovable and complies with the requirement for the centre of gravity.

 

 

 
  

Figure (a) TR36 (Rule 191) – Suggested apparatus for testing centre of gravity of hammer head

 

  • The wire shall be a single unbroken and straight length of spring steel wire not less than 3mm in diameter and shall be such that it cannot stretch appreciably while the hammer is being

 

The wire may be looped at one or both ends as a means of attachment. The wire shall be connected to the head by means of a swivel, which may be either plain or ball bearing.

 

  • The handle shall be rigid and without hinging joints of any kind. The total deformation of the handle under a tension load of 3.8kN shall not exceed 3mm. It shall be attached to the wire in such a manner that it cannot be turned within the loop of the wire to increase the overall length of the hammer. The handle shall be connected to the wire by means of a loop. A swivel may not be

 

The handle shall have a symmetric design and may have a curved or straight grip and/or brace. The minimum handle breaking strength shall be 8kN.

 

 

 

Figure (b) TR36 (Rule 191) – Generic hammer handle

 

Note: Other designs complying with the specifications are acceptable.

 

  • The hammer shall conform to the following specifications:

 

Minimum weight for admission to competition and acceptance of a Record: 3.000kg                       4.000kg                         5.000kg            6.000kg                         7.260kg

Length of hammer measured from inside of handle:

Maximum         1195mm           1195mm           1200mm                         1215mm           1215mm Diameter of head:

Minimum85mm95mm100mm105mm110mm
Maximum100mm110mm120mm125mm130mm

 

Note: The weight of the implement includes the totality of the hammer head, wire and handle.

 

Team of Officials

 

For a Hammer Throw event, it is recommended to allocate the available officials as follows:

 

  1. The Chief Judge will watch over the whole of the

 

  1. Two Judges checking whether the throw has been made correctly and measuring the trial. One must be provided with two flags – white to indicate if the trial is valid and red

 

if it is a failure. When the throw has been measured, it is advised that the Judge stands at the entrance to the cage holding the red flag, while the implement is returned and the landing area is cleared. A cone may be placed at this point instead. (In some competitions this position is assumed by the Chief Judge of the event.)

 

Where EDM is not in use the second Judge should pull through and hold the measuring tape in such a way that it passes through the centre of the circle.

 

  1. Judge immediately after the throw placing a marker indicating the point from which the trial is to be measured. If the implement lands outside the sector either this Judge or the one with the spike/prism (whichever is closer to the line) should indicate this by holding their arm outstretched. No indication is required for a valid

 

  1. Judge positioning the spike/prism at the point where the marker has been placed ensuring the tape is on the zero

 

  1. one or more Judges or assistants in charge of retrieving the implements and returning them to the implement stand or placing them in the return device. Where a tape is used for measurement, one of these Judges or assistants should ensure that the tape measure is taut in order to ensure a correct

 

  1. Judge – a recorder scoring the results sheet and calling each athlete (and the one who is to follow).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the scoreboard (trial-number-result).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the clock indicating to the athletes that they have a certain time to take their

 

  1. Judge in charge of

 

  1. Judge in charge of the implement

 

Note (i): This is the traditional setting-up of the officials. In major competitions, where a data system and electronic scoreboards are available, specialised personnel are certainly required. To be clear in these cases, the progress and scoring of a Field Event is followed by both the recorder and by the data system.

 

Note (ii): Officials and equipment must be placed in such a way as not to obstruct the athlete’s way nor impede the view of the spectators.

 

37.             (Rule 192) Hammer Cage

 

  • All hammer throws shall be made from an enclosure or cage to ensure the safety of spectators, officials and athletes. The cage specified in this Rule is intended for use when the event takes place in the Field of Play with other events taking place at the same time or when the event takes place outside the Field of Play with spectators present. Where this does not apply, and especially in training areas, a much simpler construction may be satisfactory. Advice is available on request from Members or from the World Athletics

 

  • The cage should be designed, manufactured and maintained so as to be capable of stopping a 7.260kg hammer head moving at a speed of up to 32 metres per second. The arrangement should be such that there is no danger of ricocheting or rebounding back towards the athlete or over the top of the cage. Provided that it satisfies all the requirements of this Rule, any form of cage design and construction can be

 

  • The cage should be U-shaped in plan as shown in Figure (a) TR37. The width of the mouth should be 6m, positioned 7m in front of the centre of the throwing circle. The end points of the 6m wide mouth shall be the inner edge of the pivoted netting. The height of the netting panels or draped netting at their lowest point shall be at least 7m for the panels/netting at the rear of the cage and at least 10m for the last 2.80m panels to the gate netting pivot

 

Provisions should be made in the design and construction of the cage to prevent a hammer forcing its way through any joints in the cage or the netting or underneath the netting panels or draped netting.

 

Note: The arrangement of the rear panels / netting is not important provided the netting is a minimum of 3.50m away from the centre of the circle.

 

  • Two movable netting panels 2m wide shall be provided at the front of the cage, only one of which will be operative at a time. The minimum height of the panels shall be 10m.

 

Note (i): The left hand panel is used for throwers turning anti clockwise, and the right hand panel for throwers turning clockwise. In view of the possible need to change over from one panel to the other during the competition, when both left and right- handed throwers are present, it is essential that this changeover should require little labour and be carried out in the minimum of time.

 

Note (ii): The end position of both panels is shown in the plan even though only one panel will be closed at any one time during competition.

 

Note (iii): When in operation, the movable panel shall be exactly in the position shown. Provision shall therefore, be made in the design of the movable panels to lock them in the operative position. It is recommended to mark (either temporarily or permanently) the operative positions of the panels on the ground.

 

Note (iv): The construction of these panels and their operation depends on the overall design of the cage and can be sliding, hinging on a vertical or horizontal axis or dismounting. The only firm requirements are that the panel in operation shall be fully able to stop any hammer striking it and there shall be no danger of a hammer being able to force its way between the fixed and movable panels.

 

Note (v): Innovative designs that provide the same degree of protection and do not increase the danger zone compared with conventional designs may be World Athletics certified.

 

 

 

Figure (a) TR37 (Rule 192) – Cage for Hammer and Discus Throw with concentric circles

(Hammer Throw configuration, with cage dimensions to netting)

 

  • The netting for the cage can be made from suitable natural or synthetic fibre cord or, alternatively, from mild or high tensile steel wire. The maximum mesh size shall be 45mm for cord netting and 50mm for steel wire.

 

Note: Further specifications for the netting and safety inspection procedures are set out in the World Athletics Track and Field Facilities Manual.

 

  • Where it is desired to use the same cage for Discus Throw, the installation can be adapted in two alternative ways. Most simply, a 2.135m/2.50m concentric circle may be fitted, but this involves using the same surface in the circle for Hammer Throw and Discus Throw. The hammer cage shall be used for Discus Throw by fixing the movable netting panels clear of the cage

 

For separate circles for Hammer Throw and Discus Throw in the same cage, the two circles shall be placed one behind the other with the centres 2.37m apart on the centre line of the landing sector and with the discus circle at the front. In that case, the movable netting panels shall be used for Discus Throw in order to lengthen the cage sides.

 

Note: The arrangement of the rear panels/draped netting is not important provided  the netting is a minimum of 3.50m away from the centre of concentric circles or the hammer circle in case of separate circles (or 3.00m for cages with separate circles built under the Rule in force before 2004 with the discus circle at the back) (see also Rule 37.4 of the Technical Rules).

 

 

Figure (b) TR37 (Rule 192) – Cage for Hammer and Discus Throw

with concentric circles (Discus Throw configuration, with cage dimensions to netting)

 

 

 

Figure (c) TR37 (Rule 192) – Cage for Hammer and Discus Throw with separate circles

(With cage dimensions to netting)

 

  • The maximum danger sector for hammer throws from this cage is approximately 53°, when used by both right and left-handed throwers in the same competition (calculated by assuming that the hammer is released from a circumscribed circle of 2.407m radius). The position and alignment of the cage in the Field of Play is, therefore, critical for its safe

 

Note: The method used to determine the danger zone is illustrated in Figure (a)  TR37.

 

38.             (Rule 193) Javelin Throw Competition

  • The javelin shall be held at the grip with one hand only. It shall be thrown over the shoulder or upper part of the throwing arm and shall not be slung or hurled. Non- orthodox styles are not

 

  • A throw shall be valid only if the metal head strikes the ground before any other part of the

 

  • Until the javelin has been thrown, an athlete shall not at any time turn completely around, so that their back is towards the throwing

 

Previous references in the Rules to the “tip” of the javelin have been removed and are replaced by a generic reference to the head. This acknowledges that the shape of the head varies greatly, making it harder to separately define the tip. It means that Judges in determining whether the javelin has landed correctly in terms of Rule 32.16 of the Technical Rules and this Rule 38.2 and the reference point for measurement in terms of Rule 32.20.2 of the Technical Rules now have a bigger area with which to assess. But the principles remain as before and there must be some angle on landing, however small, for the throw to be valid. Flat or “tail-first” landings are still to be red flagged.

 

  • If the javelin breaks during a throw or while in the air, it shall not count as a failure, provided the trial was otherwise made in accordance with this Rule. Nor shall it count as a failure if an athlete thereby loses their balance and as a result contravenes any part of this Rule. In both cases the athlete shall be awarded a replacement

 

Javelin

 

  • The javelin shall consist of three main parts: a shaft, a head and a cord

 

  • The shaft may be solid or hollow and shall be constructed of metal or other suitable material so as to constitute a fixed and integrated whole. The surface of the shaft shall have no dimples or pimples, grooves or ridges, holes or roughness, and the finish shall be smooth (see Rule 33.4 of the Technical Rules) and uniform

 

  • The shaft shall have fixed to it a metal head terminating in a sharp point. The head shall be constructed completely of metal. It may contain a reinforced tip of other metal alloy fixed to the front end of the head provided that the completed head is smooth (see Rule 38.4 of the Technical Rules) and uniform along the whole of its surface. The angle of tip shall not exceed 40

 

  • The cord grip, which shall cover the centre of gravity, shall not exceed the diameter of the shaft by more than 8mm. It may have a regular non-slip pattern surface but without thongs, notches or indentations of any kind. The grip shall be of uniform thickness.

 

  • The cross-section shall be regularly circular throughout (see Note (i)). The maximum diameter of the shaft shall be immediately in front of the grip. The central portion of the shaft, including the part under the grip, may be cylindrical or slightly tapered towards the rear but in no case may the reduction in diameter, from immediately in front of the grip to immediately behind, exceed 0.25mm. From the grip, the javelin shall taper regularly to the tip at the front and the tail at the rear. The longitudinal profile from the grip to the front tip and to the tail shall be straight or slightly convex (see Note (ii)), and there shall be no abrupt alteration in the overall diameter, except immediately behind the head and at the front and rear of the grip, throughout the length of the javelin. At the rear of the head, the reduction in the diameter may not exceed 2.5mm and this departure from the longitudinal profile requirement may not extend more than 0.3m behind the

 

Note (i): Whilst the cross section throughout should be circular, a maximum difference between the largest and the smallest diameter at any cross section of 2% is permitted. The mean value of these two diameters, at any nominated cross section, shall meet the specifications of a circular javelin in the tables hereunder.

 

Note (ii): The shape of the longitudinal profile may be quickly and easily checked using a metal straight edge at least 500mm long and two feeler gauges 0.20mm and 1.25mm thick. For slightly convex sections of the profile, the straight edge will rock while being in firm contact with a short section of the javelin. For straight sections of the profile, with the straight edge held firmly against it, it must be impossible to insert the 0.20mm gauge between the javelin and the straight edge anywhere over the length of contact. This shall not apply immediately behind the joint between the head and the shaft. At this point it must be impossible to insert the 1.25mm gauge.

 

  • The javelin shall conform to the following specifications:

 

Minimum weight for admission to competition and acceptance of a Record (inclusive of the cord grip):

 

500g               600g              700g            800g

 

Overall length (L0):

 

Minimum

 

Maximum

2000mm

 

2100mm

2200mm

 

2300mm

2300mm

 

2400mm

2600mm

 

2700mm

 

Distance from tip of metal head to centre of gravity (L1):

 

Minimum

 

780mm

 

800mm

 

860mm

 

900mm

Maximum880mm920mm1000mm1060mm
 

Distance from tail to centre of gravity (L2):

 

Minimum

 

1120mm

 

1280mm

 

1300mm

 

1540mm

Maximum1320mm1500mm1540mm1800mm
 

Length of metal head (L3):

 

Minimum

 

220mm

 

250mm

 

250mm

 

250mm

Maximum270mm330mm330mm330mm
 

Width of cord grip (L4):

 

Minimum

 

135mm

 

140mm

 

150mm

 

150mm

Maximum145mm150mm160mm160mm
 

Diameter of shaft at thickest point (in front of grip – D0):

 

Minimum

 

20mm

 

20mm

 

23mm

 

25mm

Maximum24mm25mm28mm30mm

 

  • The javelin shall have no mobile parts or other apparatus, which during the throw could change its centre of gravity or throwing

 

  • The tapering of the javelin to the tip of the metal head shall be such that the angle of the point shall be not more than 40°. The diameter, at a point 0.15m from the tip, shall not exceed 80% of the maximum diameter of the shaft. At the midpoint between the centre of gravity and the tip of the metal head, the diameter shall not exceed 90% of the maximum diameter of the shaft.

 

  • The tapering of the shaft to the tail at the rear shall be such that the diameter, at the midpoint between the centre of gravity and the tail, shall not be less than 90% of the maximum diameter of the At a point 0.15m from the tail, the diameter shall be

 

not less than 40% of the maximum diameter of the shaft. The diameter of the shaft at the end of the tail shall not be less than 3.5mm.

 

Book C – C2.1

 

 
  

 

Figure TR38 (Rule 193) – International Javelin

 

Lengths

 

L0              Overall

Diameters

 

D0        In front of grip

Maximum

 

Minimum

 

L1              Tip to C of GD1        At rear of gripD0D0-0.25mm
1/2L1         Half L1D2        150mm from tip0.8 D0
L2              Tail to C of GD3        At rear of head
1/2L2         Half L2D4        Immediately behind headD3-2.5mm
L3              HeadD5        Half way tip to C of G0.9 D0
L4              GripD6        Over gripD0+8mm
 D7        Half way tail to C of G0.9 D0
 D8        150mm from tail0.4 D0
C of G        Centre of GravityD9        At tail3.5mm

 

Note: All measurements of diameters must be to at least 0.1 mm.

 

Team of Officials

 

For a Javelin Throw event, it is recommended to allocate the available officials as follows:

 

  1. The Chief Judge will watch over the whole of the

 

  1. Two Judges checking whether the throw has been made correctly and measuring the trial. One must be provided with two flags – white to indicate if the trial is valid and red if it is a failure. When the throw has been measured, it is advised that the Judge stands on the runway holding the red flag, while the implement is returned and the landing area is cleared. A cone may be placed on the runway instead. (In some competitions this position is assumed by the Chief Judge of the )

 

  1. Where EDM is not in use the second Judge should pull through and hold the measuring tape in such a way that it passes through the 8m point marked on the runway.

 

  1. one or two Judges immediately after the throw placing a marker indicating the point from which the trial is to be measured. If the implement lands outside the sector either this Judge or the one with the spike/prism (whichever is closer to the line) should indicate this by holding their arm outstretched. An appropriate indication is also required if these Judges determine that the implement has not landed “head first”. It is recommended that some form of signal other than flags in used for this purpose. No indication is required for a valid

 

  1. Judge positioning the spike/prism at the point where the marker has been placed ensuring the tape is on the zero

 

  1. one or more Judges or assistants in charge of retrieving the implements and returning them to the implement stand or placing them in the return device. Where a tape is used for measurement, one of these Judges or assistants should ensure that the tape measure is taut in order to ensure a correct

 

  1. Judge – a recorder scoring the results sheet and calling each athlete (and the one who is to follow).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the scoreboard (trial-number-result).

 

  1. Judge in charge of the clock indicating to the athletes that they have a certain time to take their

 

  1. Judge in charge of

 

  1. Judge in charge of the implement

 

Note (i): This is the traditional setting-up of the officials. In major competitions, where a data system and electronic scoreboards are available, specialised personnel are certainly required. To be clear in these cases, the progress and scoring of a Field Event is followed by both the recorder and by the data system.

 

Note (ii): Officials and equipment must be placed in such a way as not to obstruct the athlete’s way nor impede the view of the spectators.

 

Note (iii): A space must be reserved for a wind-sock to indicate the wind direction and strength.

 

PART IV – COMBINED EVENTS COMPETITIONS

(In force from 1 November 2019)

 

39.             (Rule 200) Combined Events Competitions U18, U20 and Senior Men (Pentathlon and Decathlon)

  • The Pentathlon consists of five events which shall be held on one day in the following order: Long Jump; Javelin Throw; 200m; Discus Throw; and

 

  • The Men’s Decathlon consists of ten events which shall be held on two consecutive 24-hour periods in the following order:

 

First day:           100m; Long Jump; Shot Put; High Jump; 400m.

 

Second day:     110m Hurdles; Discus Throw; Pole Vault; Javelin Throw; 1500m.

 

U20 and Senior Women (Heptathlon and Decathlon)

 

  • The Heptathlon consists of seven events, which shall be held on two consecutive 24- hour periods in the following order:

 

First day:           100m Hurdles; High Jump; Shot Put; 200m. Second day:  Long Jump; Javelin Throw; 800m.

  • The Women’s Decathlon consists of ten events which shall be held on two consecutive 24-hour periods in the order of Rule 39.2 or in the following order:

 

First day:           100m; Discus Throw; Pole Vault; Javelin Throw; 400m. Second day:  100m Hurdles; Long Jump; Shot Put; High Jump;1500m.

  • The U18 Women’s Heptathlon consists of seven events, which shall be held on two consecutive 24-hour periods in the following order:

First day:           100m Hurdles; High Jump; Shot Put; 200m. Second day:   Long Jump; Javelin Throw; 800m.

 

General

 

  • At the discretion of the Combined Events Referee, there shall, whenever possible, be an interval of at least 30 minutes between the time one event ends and the next event begins, for any individual athlete. If possible, the time between the finish of the last event on the first day and the start of the first event on the second day should be at least 10

 

The minimum period of 30 minutes is to be calculated as being the actual time between the end of the last race or trial for any athlete in the previous event to the start of the first race or trial in the next event. It is therefore possible and no uncommon for athletes to go directly from the conclusion of one event to the warm-up for the next so that the 30 minutes is in effect taken up by the movement from one site to another and the warm-up. Changes in the number of days over which a Combined Events competition is conducted are not allowed except for special cases (e.g. exceptional weather conditions). Such decisions are matters for the Technical Delegates and/or Referees in the particular circumstances of each case. However if, for any reason, the competition is held for a longer period than according to

 

Rules 39 or 53 of the Technical Rules then a record in Combined Events (total number of points) cannot be ratified.

 

  • In each separate event, except the last, of a Combined Events competition, the heats and groups shall be arranged by the Technical Delegate(s) or Combined Events Referee, as applicable, so that the athletes with similar performances in each individual event during a predetermined period, shall be placed in the same heat or group. Preferably five or more, and never less than three, athletes shall be placed in each heat or group. When this cannot be achieved because of the timetable of events, the heats or groups for the next event should be arranged as and when athletes become available from the previous

 

In the last event of a Combined Events competition, the heats should be arranged so that the last one contains the leading athletes after the penultimate event.

 

The Technical Delegate(s) or the Combined Events Referee shall have the authority to rearrange any group if, in their opinion, it is desirable.

 

  • The Rules for each event constituting the competition will apply with the following exceptions:

 

  • in the Long Jump and each of the throwing events, each athlete shall be allowed three trials

 

  • in case a Fully Automatic Timing and Photo Finish System is not available, each athlete’s time shall be taken by three Timekeepers

 

  • in the Track Events, only one false start per race shall be allowed without the disqualification of the athlete(s) responsible for the false start. Any athlete(s) responsible for further false starts in the race shall be disqualified by the Starter (see also Rule 16.9 of the Technical Rules).

 

  • in the Vertical Jumps, each increase of the bar shall be uniform throughout the competition: 3cm in the High Jump and 10cm in the Pole

 

  • starting positions / lanes for last event of a Combined Events competition may be determined by the Technical Delegate(s) or the Combined Events Referee as they deem desirable. In all other events they shall be drawn by lot.

 

  • Only one system of timing may be applied throughout each individual event. However, for Record purposes, times obtained from a Fully Automatic Timing and Photo Finish system shall be applied regardless of whether such times are available for other athletes in the

 

Two systems of timekeeping are recognised for this purpose – those set out in Rules 19.1.1 and 19.1.2 of the Technical Rules.

 

If for example there is a malfunction of Photo Finish being used for some but not all of the heats it will be impossible to compare directly the points scores in the two systems for the same time – one by Hand Time and the other automatic.

 

Since under Rule 39.9 of the Technical Rules, only one system of timing may be applied throughout any single event in a competition, in such a case all athletes would have their points determined based on their manual times using the specific manual times table.

 

To be clear, if in other events all athletes have Photo Finish times, the electronic times table can be used for those events.

 

  • Any athlete failing to attempt to start or make a trial in one of the events shall not be allowed to take part in the subsequent events but shall be considered to have abandoned the competition. They shall not, therefore, figure in the final

 

Any athlete deciding to withdraw from a Combined Events competition shall immediately inform the Combined Events Referee of their decision.

 

  • The scores, according to the current Combined Events Scoring Tables, shall be announced, separate for each event and as a cumulative total, to all athletes after the completion of each

 

The athletes shall be placed in order according to the total number of points obtained.

 

The same Scoring Tables are used for each event even if for the younger age groups the specifications for the hurdles or throwing implements differ from those used for senior competition.

 

The score for any performance in either a Track Event or a Field Event can be found in the appropriate table. In many events, not all possible times or distances are listed in the table. In such cases, the score for the nearest lesser performance shall be used.

 

Example: For the women’s Javelin Throw there is no points score shown for a distance of 45.82m. The nearer shorter distance listed in the table is 45.78m for which there is a score of 779 points.

 

  • When it is decided to use the Gundersen (or similar) Method for the start of the last event of a Combined Events competition, the relevant competition regulations should specify any particular rules that should be applied and the method by which the races should be started and

 

  • If two or more athletes achieve an equal number of points for any place in the competition, it shall be determined as a

 

PART V – INDOOR COMPETITIONS

(In force from 1 November 2019)

 

40.             (Rule 210) Applicability of Outdoor Rules to Indoor Competitions

 

With the exceptions stated in the following Rules of this Part V and the requirement for wind measurement set out in Rules 17 and 29 of the Technical Rules, the Rules of Parts I to IV for outdoor competitions shall apply to Indoor Competitions.

 

41.             (Rule 211) The Indoor Stadium

 

  • The stadium shall be completely enclosed and covered. Lighting, heating and ventilation shall be provided to give satisfactory conditions for

 

  • The Field of Play should include an oval track; a straight track for sprints and hurdles; runways and landing areas for jumping events. In addition, a circle and landing sector for the Shot Put should be provided, whether permanently or temporarily. All the facilities should conform to the specifications in the World Athletics Track and Field Facilities

 

  • All the tracks, runways or take-off surface areas shall be covered with a synthetic material that should preferably be able to accept 6mm spikes in running

 

Alternative thicknesses may be provided by the stadium management, who will notify athletes of the permissible length of spikes. (See Rule 5.4 of the Technical Rules).

 

Indoor Track and Field competitions under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition should be held only on facilities that hold a World Athletics Indoor Athletics Facility Certificate. It is recommended that, when such facilities are available, competitions under paragraphs 1.4, 1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9 and 1.10 of the International Competition definition should also be held on these facilities.

 

  • The foundation on which the synthetic surface of the tracks, runways and take-off areas is laid shall be either solid e.g. concrete or, if of suspended construction (such as wooden boards or plywood sheets mounted on joists), without any special sprung sections and, as far as technically possible, each runway shall have a uniform resilience throughout. This shall be checked, for the take-off area for the jumps, before each

 

Note (i): A “sprung section” is any deliberately engineered or constructed section designed to give extra assistance to an athlete.

 

Note (ii): The World Athletics Track and Field Facilities Manual, which is available from the World Athletics Office, or may be downloaded from the World Athletics website, contains more detailed and defined specifications for planning and construction of indoor stadia including diagrams for track measurement and marking.

 

Note (iii): The current standard forms required to be used for the certification application and measurement report as well as the Certification System Procedures are available from the World Athletics Office, or may be downloaded from the World Athletics website.

 

Lack of suitable lighting is a common problem for Indoor Competitions. A covered stadium must have a lighting which allows a correct and fair delivery of the events and if there is

 

television coverage the illumination level may need to be higher. The finish line area(s) may require additional lighting for the Fully Automatic Timing.

 

42.             (Rule 212) The Straight Track

 

[See the Rules for outdoor competitions and the World Athletics Track and Field Facilities Manual.]

 

43.             (Rule 213) The Oval Track and Lanes

 

  • The nominal length should preferably be 200m. It shall consist of two parallel straights and two bends, which may be banked, whose radii should be

 

The inside of the track shall be bordered either with a kerb of suitable material, approximately 50mm in height and width, or with a white line 50mm wide. The outside edge of this kerb or line forms the inside of lane 1. The inside edge of the kerb or line shall be horizontal throughout the length of the track with a maximum slope of 1:1000 (0.1%). The kerb on the two straights may be omitted, and a white line 50mm wide substituted.

 

Note: All measurements shall be taken as indicated in Rule 14.2 of the Technical Rules.

 

Lanes

 

  • The track should have a minimum of four and a maximum of six lanes. The nominal width of the lanes shall be between 0.90m and 1.10m including the lane line on the right. All lanes shall be of the same nominal width with a tolerance of ± 0.01m to the selected width. The lanes shall be separated by white lines 50mm

 

Banking

 

  • The angle of banking in all the lanes in the bend and, separately, in the straight, should be the same at any cross section of the track. The straight may be flat or have a maximum lateral inclination of 1:100 (1%) towards the inside

 

In order to ease the change from the straight to the banked bend, the change may be made with a smooth gradual horizontal transition which may be extended into the straight. In addition, there should be a vertical transition.

 

Marking of the Inside Edge

 

  • Where the inside edge of the track is bordered with a white line, it shall be marked additionally with cones or flags on the bends and, optionally, on the straights. The cones shall be at least 0.15m high. The flags shall be approximately 0.25m × 0.20m in size, at least 0.45m high and set at an angle of 60° with the ground away from the track. The cones or flags shall be placed on the white line so that the edge of the base of the cone or flag pole coincides with the edge of the white line closest to the track. The cones or flags shall be placed at intervals not exceeding 1.5m on the bends and, if used, 10m on the

 

Note: For all indoor competitions directly under World Athletics, the use of an inside kerb is strongly recommended.

 

An Oval Track may be longer than 200m but any records for 200m or longer races would not be ratified. To organise top level competitions, it will be useful to have a 6 lane track. The ideal width of the lanes of an Oval Track should be 1m.

 

 

When positioning the flags or cones it must be taken into account that the white line on the inside edge of lane 1 does not belong to the runner drawn in that lane. Cones are preferred and recommended for Indoor Competitions.

 

44.             (Rule 214) Start and Finish on the Oval Track

 

  • Technical information on the construction and marking of a 200m banked indoor track are given in detail in the World Athletics Track and Field Facilities Manual. The basic principles to be adopted are given

 

Basic Requirements

 

  • The start and finish of a race shall be denoted by white lines 50mm wide, at right angles to the lane lines for straight parts of the track and along a radius line for curved parts of the

 

  • The requirements for the finish line are that, if at all possible, there should be only one for all the different lengths of race, it shall be on a straight part of the track and as much of that straight as possible should be before the

 

  • The essential requirement for all start lines, straight, staggered or curved, is that the distance for every athlete, when taking the shortest permitted route, shall be the same.

 

  • As far as possible, start lines (and takeover zone lines for Relay Races) should not be on the steepest part of the

 

Conduct of the Races

 

  • Conduct of the Races, as follows:

 

  • Races of up to, and including, 300m shall be run entirely in

 

  • Races over 300m, and less than 800m shall start and continue in lanes until the breakline marked at the end of the second

 

  • For the start of races of 800m, each athlete may be assigned a separate lane, or up to two athletes may be assigned per lane, or a group start, as in Rule 17.5.2 of the Technical Rules preferably commencing in lanes 1 and 4, may be used. In these cases, athletes may leave their lane, or those running in the outer group may join the inner group, only after the breakline marked at the end of the first bend, or if the race is run with two bends in lanes, at the end of the second bend. A single curved start line may also be

 

  • Races longer than 800m shall be run without lanes using an arced start line or group starts. If a group start is used, the breakline shall be at the end of either the first or second

 

If an athlete does not follow this Rule, they shall be disqualified.

 

The breakline shall be an arced line marked after each bend, 50mm wide, across all lanes other than lane 1. To assist athletes identify the breakline, small cones, prisms or other suitable markers, 50mm × 50mm and no more than 0.15m high, preferably  of different colour from the breakline and the lane lines, shall be placed on the lane lines immediately before the intersection of the lane lines and the breakline.

 

Note (i): In competitions other than those held under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, the participating teams may agree not to use lanes for the 800m event.

 

Note (ii): On tracks with less than six lanes, a group start may be used to allow six athletes to compete.

 

Start Line and Finish Line for a Track of 200m Nominal Length

 

  • The start line in lane 1 should be on the principal straight. Its position shall be determined so that the most advanced staggered start line in the outside lane (400m races) should be in a position where the angle of banking should not be more than 12 degrees.

 

The finish line for all races on the oval track shall be an extension of the start line in lane 1, right across the track and at right angles to the lane lines.

 

Colours to use for marking the track are indicated on the Track Marking Plan included in the World Athletics Track and Field Facilities Manual.

 

45.             (Rule 215) Seedings and Draw for Lanes in Track Events

 

  • The ranking and composition of heats shall be made in accordance with Rule 20.3 of the Technical

 

  • For all rounds in all events run wholly or partly in lanes around a bend, where there are successive rounds of a race, three draws for lanes will then be made:

 

  • one for the two highest ranked athletes or teams to determine placings in the outer two lanes;

 

  • another for the third and fourth ranked athletes or teams to determine placings in the next two lanes;

 

  • another for the other athletes or teams to determine placings in any remaining inner

 

  • For all other races, the lane order shall be drawn in accordance with Rules 4.1-

20.4.2 and 20.5 of the Technical Rules.

 

Where tracks have a different configuration of lanes, then the tables to be used should be adapted either in the specific Technical Regulations for the competition or if not by the Technical Delegate(s) or the Organisers.

 

46.             (Rule 216) Clothing, Shoes and Athlete Bibs

 

That part of each spike which projects from the sole or the heel shall not exceed 6mm (or as required by the Organisers) subject always to the maxima provided in Rule 5.4 of the

 

Technical Rules.

 

47.             (Rule 217) Hurdle Races

 

  • The standard distances shall be: 50m or 60m on the straight

 

  • Layout of the hurdles for races:

 

 U18

Men

U20 MenMenU18

Women

U20 Women/ Women
Height of hurdle 

0.914m

 

0.991m

 

1.067m

 

0.762m

 

0.838m

Distance50m/60m
Number of hurdles 

4/5

Start line to first hurdle 

13.72m

 

13.00m

 
Between hurdles 

9.14m

 

8.50m

 
Last hurdle to finish line 

8.86m/9.72m

 

11.50m/13.00m

 

 

48.             (Rule 218) Relay Races Conduct of the Races

  • In the 4 × 200m race, all the first leg and the first bend of the second leg up to the nearer edge of the breakline described in Rule 44.6 of the Technical Rules, shall be run in lanes. Each takeover zone shall be 20m long and the second, third and fourth athlete shall start within this

 

  • The 4 × 400m race shall be run according to Rule 44.6.2 of the Technical

 

  • The 4 × 800m race shall be run according to Rule 44.6.3 of the Technical

 

  • The waiting athletes in the third and fourth legs of the 4 × 200m race, in the second, third and fourth legs of the 4 × 400m and the 4 × 800m race shall, under the direction of a designated official, place themselves in their waiting position in the same order (inside to out) as the order of their respective team members as they enter the last bend. Once the incoming athletes have passed this point, the waiting athletes shall maintain their order, and shall not exchange positions at the beginning of the takeover zone. If an athlete does not follow this Rule, their team shall be

 

Note: Owing to the narrow lanes, indoor Relay Races are much more liable to collisions and unintended obstruction than outdoor Relay Races. It is, therefore, recommended that, when possible, a spare lane should be left between each team.

 

49.             (Rule 219) High Jump Runway and Take-Off Area

  • If portable mats are used, all references in the Rules to the level of the take-off area must be construed as referring to the level of the top surface of the

 

  • An athlete may start their approach on the banking of the oval track provided that the last 15m of their run up is on a runway complying with Rules 27.3, 27.4 and 27.5 of the Technical

 

50.             (Rule 220) Pole Vault Runway

An athlete may start their approach on the banking of the oval track provided that the last 40m of their run up is on a runway complying with Rules 28.6 and 28.7 of the Technical Rules.

 

51.             (Rule 221) Horizontal Jumps Runway

An athlete may start their approach on the banking of the oval track provided that the last 40m of their run up is on a runway complying with Rules 29.1 and 29.2 of the Technical Rules.

 

52.             (Rule 222) Shot Put Landing Sector

  • The landing sector shall consist of some suitable material on which the shot will make an imprint, but which will minimise any

 

  • Where necessary to ensure the safety of spectators, officials and athletes, the landing sector shall be enclosed at the far end and on the two sides by a stop barrier and/or protective netting, placed as close to the circle as required. The recommended minimum height of the netting should be 4m and sufficient to stop a shot, whether in flight or bouncing from the landing

 

  • In view of the limited space in an indoor Field of Play, the area enclosed by the stop barrier may not be large enough to include a full 34.92° sector. The following conditions shall apply to any such

 

  • The stop barrier at the far end shall be at least 0.50m beyond the current World Record in Shot Put for men or

 

  • The sector lines on either side shall be symmetrical about the centre line of the 34.92°

 

  • The sector lines may either run radially from the centre of the Shot Put circle including a full 34.92° sector, or may be parallel to each other and the centre line of the 34.92° sector. Where the sector lines are parallel, the minimum separation of the two sector lines shall be

 

It is recommended that the stop barrier / protective netting on either side should be extended towards the circle so that it starts within 8m of it and that, for the length of these extensions, the height of the netting should be at least 5m.

 

Construction of the Shot

 

  • Depending on the type of landing area (see Rule 52.1 of the Technical Rules), the shot shall be either solid metal or metal cased or, alternatively, soft plastic or rubber casing with a suitable filling. Both types of shot may not be used in the same competition.

 

Solid Metal or Metal Cased Shot

 

  • These shall comply with Rule 33.4 and 33.5 of the Technical Rules, for the Shot Put outdoors.

 

Plastic or Rubber Cased Shot

 

  • The shot shall have a soft plastic or rubber case with a suitable filling such that no damage shall be caused when landing on a normal sports hall floor. It shall be spherical in shape and its surface finish shall be

 

Information for manufacturers: to be smooth, the surface average height must be less than 1.6µm, i.e. a roughness number N7 or less.

 

  • The shot shall conform to the following specifications:

 

Minimum weight for admission to competition and acceptance of a Record:

 

 

Diameter:

3.000kg4.000kg5.000kg6.000kg7.260kg
Minimum85mm95mm100mm105mm110mm
Maximum120mm130mm135mm140mm145mm

 

53.             (Rule 223) Combined Events Competitions U18, U20 and Senior Men (Pentathlon)

  • The Pentathlon consists of five events, which shall be held on one day in the following order:

 

60m Hurdles; Long Jump; Shot Put; High Jump; 1000m.

 

U18, U20 and Senior Men (Heptathlon)

 

  • The Heptathlon consists of seven events which shall be held over two consecutive 24 hour periods in the following order:

 

First day:           60m; Long Jump; Shot Put; High Jump. Second day:   60m Hurdles; Pole Vault; 1000m.

 

U18, U20 and Senior Women (Pentathlon)

 

  • The Pentathlon consists of five events and shall be held on one day in the following order:

 

60m Hurdles; High Jump; Shot Put; Long Jump; 800m.

 

Heats and Groups

 

  • Preferably four or more, and never less than three, athletes shall be placed in each heat or

 

PART VI – RACE WALKING EVENTS

(In force from 1 November 2019)

 

54.             (Rule 230) Race Walking Distances

  • The standard distances shall be: indoor: 3000m, 5000m; outdoor: 5000m, 10km, 10,000m, 20km, 20,000m, 50km, 50,000m.

 

Definition of Race Walking

 

  • Race Walking is a progression of steps so taken that the walker makes contact with the ground, so that no visible (to the human eye) loss of contact occurs. The advancing leg must be straightened (i.e. not bent at the knee) from the moment of first contact with the ground until the vertical upright

 

Judging

 

  • Judging, as follows:

 

  • The appointed Judges of Race Walking shall elect a Chief Judge, if one has not been appointed

 

  • All the Judges shall act in an individual capacity and their judgements shall be based on observations made by the human

 

  • In competitions held under paragraph 1.1 of the International Competition definition, all Judges shall be World Athletics Level International Race Walking In competitions held under paragraphs 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.6,

1.7 and 1.10 of the International Competition definition, all Judges shall be either Area Level or World Athletics Level International Race Walking Judges.

 

  • For Road Races, there should normally be a minimum of six to a maximum of nine Judges including the Chief

 

  • For Track Races, there should normally be six Judges including the Chief Judge.

 

  • In competitions held under paragraph 1.1 of the International Competition definition not more than one Judge (excluding the Chief Judge) affiliated with any one Member can

 

Note: The Member affiliation of each Judge is that properly stated on the current lists of Area Level or World Athletics Level International Race Walking Judges.

 

Chief Judge

 

  • Chief Judge, as follows:

 

  • In competitions held under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, the Chief Judge has the power to disqualify an athlete in the last 100m, when their mode of progression

 

obviously fails to comply with Rule 54.2 of the Technical Rules regardless of the number of previous Red Cards the Chief Judge has received on that athlete. An athlete who is disqualified by the Chief Judge under these circumstances shall be allowed to finish the race. They shall be notified of this disqualification by the Chief Judge or a Chief Judge’s Assistant by showing the athlete a red paddle at the earliest opportunity after the athlete has finished the race.

 

  • The Chief Judge shall act as the supervising official for the competition, and act as a Judge only in the special situation noted in Rule 54.4.1. In competitions held under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, two or more Chief Judge’s Assistants shall be appointed. The Chief Judge’s Assistant(s) are to assist with the notification of disqualifications only and shall not act as Race Walking Judges.

 

  • For all competitions held under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition and where possible for other competitions, an official in charge of the Posting Board(s) and a Chief Judge’s Recorder shall be

 

Yellow Paddle

 

  • When a Judge is not completely satisfied that an athlete is fully complying with Rule

54.2 of the Technical Rules, they should, where possible, show the athlete a yellow paddle with the symbol of the offence on each side.

 

An athlete cannot be shown a second yellow paddle by the same Judge for the same offence. Having shown a yellow paddle to an athlete, the Judge shall inform the Chief Judge of their action after the competition.

 

Red Cards

 

  • When a Judge observes an athlete failing to comply with Rule 54.2 of the Technical Rules by exhibiting visible loss of contact or a bent knee during any part of the competition, the Judge shall send a Red Card to the Chief

 

Disqualification

 

  • Disqualification, as follows:

 

  • Except as provided in Rule 54.7.3 of the Technical Rules, when three Red Cards from three different Judges have been sent to the Chief Judge on the same athlete, the athlete is disqualified and they shall be notified of this disqualification by the Chief Judge or a Chief Judge’s Assistant by being shown a red paddle. The failure to give notification shall not result in the reinstatement of a disqualified

 

  • In competitions under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 or 1.5 of the International Competition definition, in no circumstances shall the Red Cards of two Judges affiliated with the same Member have the power to

 

Note: The Member affiliation of each Judge is that properly stated on the current lists of Area Level or World Athletics Level International Race Walking Judges.

 

  • A Penalty Zone shall be used for any race where the applicable regulations for the competition so provide and may be used for other races as determined by the relevant governing body or Organisers. In such cases, an athlete will be required to enter the Penalty Zone and remain there for the applicable period once they have received three Red Cards and are so advised by the Chief Judge or someone delegated by

 

The applicable period in the Penalty Zone shall be as follows: Races up to and including           Time

5000m/5km                            0.5 min

10,000m/10km                       1 min

20,000m/20km                       2 min

30,000m/30km                       3 min

40,000m/40km                       4 min

 

50,000m/50km                       5 min

 

An athlete who fails to enter the Penalty Zone when required to do so, or remain there for the applicable period, shall be disqualified by the Referee.

 

  • If, under Rule 54.7.3 of the Technical Rules, an athlete receives a third Red Card and it is no longer practicable to direct them to enter the Penalty Zone before the end of the race, the Referee shall add the time they would have been required to spend in the Penalty Zone to their finishing time and adjust the finishing order as may be

 

  • If, at any time when Rule 54.7.3 of the Technical Rules applies, an athlete receives an additional Red Card from a Judge other than one of the three who had previously sent a Red Card, they shall be

 

  • In Track Races, an athlete who is disqualified shall immediately leave the track and, in Road Races, shall, immediately after being disqualified, remove the distinguishing bibs and leave the course. Any disqualified athlete who fails to leave the course or track or comply with directions given under Rule 54.7.3 of the Technical Rules to enter and remain for the required period in the Penalty Zone may be liable to further disciplinary action in accordance with Rule 18.5 of the Competition Rules and Rule 7.2 of the Technical

 

  • One or more Posting Boards shall be placed on the course and near the finish to keep athletes informed about the number of Red Cards that have been sent to the Chief Judge for each athlete. The symbol of each offence should also be indicated on the Posting

 

  • For all competitions falling under paragraph 1.1 of the International Competition definition, hand held computer devices with transmission capability must be used by the Judges to communicate all Red Cards to the Recorder and the Posting Board(s). In all other competitions, in which such a system is not used, the Chief Judge, immediately after the end of the event, shall report to the Referee the identification of all athletes disqualified under Rules 4.1, 54.7.1 or 54.7.3 of the Technical Rules by

 

indicating the bib identification, the time of the notification and the offences; the same shall be done for all the athletes who received Red Cards.

 

Start

 

  • The races shall be started by the firing of a gun, cannon, air horn or like device. The commands for races longer than 400m shall be used (Rule 16.2.2 of the Technical Rules). In races which include a large number of athletes, five-minute, three-minute and one-minute warnings before the start of the race should be given. On the command “On your marks”, the athletes shall assemble on the start line in the manner determined by the organisers. The Starter shall ensure that no athlete has their foot (or any part of their body) touching the start line or the ground in front of it, and shall then start the

 

Safety

 

  • The Organisers of Race Walking events shall ensure the safety of athletes and officials. In competitions held under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, the Organisers shall ensure that the roads used for the competition are closed to motorised traffic in all

 

Drinking / Sponging and Refreshment Stations in Road Events

 

  • Drinking/Sponging and Refreshment Stations in Road Events, as follows:

 

  • Water and other suitable refreshments shall be available at the start and finish of all

 

  • For all events of 5km or longer up to and including 10km, water only drinking / sponging stations shall be provided at suitable intervals if weather conditions warrant such

 

Note: Mist stations may also be arranged, when considered appropriate under certain organisational and/or climatic conditions.

 

  • For all events longer than 10km, refreshment stations shall be provided every lap. In addition, water only drinking / sponging stations shall be placed approximately midway between the refreshment stations or more frequently if weather conditions warrant such

 

  • Refreshments, which may be provided by either the Organisers or the athlete, shall be placed at the stations so that they are easily accessible to, or may be put by authorised persons into the hands of, the athletes. Refreshments provided by the athletes shall be kept under the supervision of officials designated by the Organisers from the moment that the refreshments are delivered by the athletes or their representatives. Those officials shall ensure that the refreshments are not altered or tampered with in any

 

  • Authorised persons may not enter the course nor obstruct any athlete. They may hand the refreshment to the athlete either from behind, or from a position no more than one metre to the side, but not in front, of the

 

  • In competitions held under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, a maximum of two officials per

 

Member may be stationed at any one time behind the table. No official or authorised person shall, under any circumstances, move beside an athlete while they are taking refreshment or water.

 

Note: For an event in which a Member may be represented by more than three athletes, the Technical Regulations may allow additional officials at the refreshment tables.

 

  • An athlete may, at any time, carry water or refreshment by hand or attached to their body provided it was carried from the start or collected or received at an official

 

  • An athlete who receives or collects refreshment or water from a place other than the official stations, except where provided for medical reasons from or under the direction of race officials, or takes the refreshment of another athlete, should, for a first such offence, be warned by the Referee normally by showing a yellow card. For a second offence, the Referee shall disqualify the athlete, normally by showing a red card. The athlete shall then immediately leave the

 

Note: An athlete may receive from or pass to another athlete refreshment, water or sponges provided it was carried from the start or collected or received at an official station. However, any continuous support from an athlete to one or more others in such a way may be regarded as unfair assistance and warnings and/or disqualifications as outlined above may be applied.

 

Generally, where it is logical and in accordance with practice, there is uniformity of the provisions within Rules 54, 55 and 56 of the Technical Rules pertaining to outside events. It should be noted however that Rule 54.10.5 of the Technical Rules is intentionally different from Rule 55.8.5 of the Technical Rules in that in walking events, the team officials are not permitted in front of the tables.

 

Road Courses

 

  • Road Courses, as follows:

 

  • The circuit shall be no shorter than 1 km and no longer than 2km. For events that start and finish in the stadium, the circuit should be located as close as possible to the

 

  • Road courses shall be measured in accordance with Rule 55.3 of the Technical

 

Race Conduct

 

  • An athlete may leave the marked course with the permission and under the supervision of an official, provided that by going off course they do not shorten the distance to be

 

  • If the Referee is satisfied on the report of a Judge or Umpire or otherwise that an athlete has left the marked course thereby shortening the distance to be covered, they shall be

 

PART VII – ROAD RACES

(In force from 1 November 2019)

 

55.             (Rule 240) Road Races Distances

  • The standard distances shall be: 5km, 10km, 15km, 20km, Half-Marathon, 25km, 30km, Marathon (42.195km), 100km and Road

 

Note: It is recommended that the Road Relay race be run over the Marathon distance, ideally over a 5km loop course, with stages of 5km, 10km, 5km, 10km,  5km, 7.195km. For an U20 Road Relay, the recommended distance is a Half- Marathon with stages of 5km, 5km, 5km, 6.098km.

 

Course

 

  • The races shall be run on made-up roads. However, when traffic or similar circumstances make it unsuitable, the course, duly marked, may be on a bicycle path or footpath alongside the road, but not on soft ground such as grass verges or the like. The start and finish may be within an athletic Field of

 

Note (i): It is recommended that, for Road Races staged over standard distances, the start and finish points, measured along a theoretical straight line between them should not be further apart than 50% of the race distance. For approval of Records, see Rule 32.21.2 of the Competition Rules.

 

Note (ii): It is acceptable for the start, finish and other segments of the race to be conducted on grass or other non-paved surfaces. These segments shall be kept to a minimum.

 

  • The course shall be measured along the shortest possible route that an athlete could follow within the section of the road permitted for use in the

 

In all competitions under paragraphs 1.1 and, where possible, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, the measurement line should be marked along the course in a distinctive colour that cannot be mistaken for other markings.

 

The length of the course shall not be less than the official distance for the event. In competitions under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, the uncertainty in the measurement shall not exceed 0.1% (i.e. 42m for the Marathon) and the length of the course should have been certified in advance by a World Athletics approved course measurer.

 

Note (i): For measurement, the “Calibrated Bicycle Method” shall be used.

 

Note (ii): To prevent a course from being found to be shorter than the official race distance on future re-measurement, it is recommended that a “short course prevention factor” be built in when laying out the course. For bicycle measurements this factor should be 0.1% which means that each km on the course will have a “measured length” of 1001m.

 

Note (iii): If it is intended that parts of the course on race day will be defined by the use of non-permanent equipment such as cones, barricades, etc. their positioning shall be decided not later than the time of the measurement and the documentation

 

of such decisions shall be included in the measurement report.

 

Note (iv): It is recommended that for Road Races staged over standard distances, the overall decrease in elevation between the start and finish should not exceed 1:1000, i.e. 1m per km (0.1%). For approval of Records, see Rule 32.21.3 of the Competition Rules.

 

Note (v): A course measurement certificate is valid for 5 years, after which the course shall be re-measured even when there are no obvious changes to it.

 

  • The distance in kilometres on the route shall be displayed to all

 

  • For Road Relays, lines 50mm wide shall be drawn across the course to mark the start of each stage distance (scratch line). Similar lines shall be drawn 10m before and 10m after the scratch line to denote the takeover zone. All takeover procedures, which, unless otherwise specified by the organisers, shall comprise a physical contact between the incoming and outgoing athletes, shall be completed within this zone.

 

Start

 

  • The races shall be started by the firing of a gun, cannon, air horn or like device. The commands for races longer than 400m shall be used (Rule 16.2.2 of the Technical Rules). In races which include a large number of athletes, five-minute, three-minute and one-minute warnings before the start of the race should be given. On the command “On your marks”, the athletes shall assemble on the start line in the manner determined by the organisers. The Starter shall ensure that no athlete has their foot (or any part of their body) touching the start line or the ground in front of it, and shall then start the

 

As for middle and long distance Track Events, it is emphasised for events held outside the stadium that Starters and Referees should avoid being over-zealous in the application of the false start rules to such events. Recalling starts in road races and other outside events can be difficult, and in large fields impractical, in any case. However, where there is a clear and wilful breach, the Referee should not hesitate to consider appropriate action in respect of an individual either during or after the race. However, in major events, where the start mechanism malfunctions and it is clear or possible that the timing system may not have started a recall where practical might be the best option.

 

Safety

 

  • Organisers of Road Races shall ensure the safety of athletes and officials. In competitions held under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, the Organisers shall ensure that the roads used for the competition are closed to motorised traffic in all

 

Drinking / Sponging and Refreshment Stations

 

  • Drinking/Sponging and Refreshment Stations

 

  • Water and other suitable refreshments shall be available at the start and finish of all

 

  • For all events, water shall be available at suitable intervals of approximately 5km. For events longer than 10km, refreshments other than water may be made available at these

 

Note (i): Where conditions warrant, taking into account the nature of the event, the weather conditions and the state of fitness of the majority of the competitors, water and/or refreshments may be placed at more regular intervals along the route.

 

Note (ii): Mist stations may also be arranged, when considered appropriate under certain organisational and/or climatic conditions.

 

  • Refreshments may include drinks, energy supplements, foodstuffs or any other item other than water. The Organisers will determine which refreshments it will provide based on prevailing

 

  • Refreshments will normally be provided by the Organisers but it may permit athletes to provide their own, in which case the athlete shall nominate at which stations they shall be made available to them. Refreshments provided by the athletes shall be kept under the supervision of officials designated by the Organisers from the time that the refreshments are lodged by the athletes or their representatives. Those officials shall ensure that the refreshments are not altered or tampered with in any

 

  • The Organisers shall delineate, by barriers, tables or markings on the ground, the area from which refreshments can be received or collected. It should not be directly in the line of the measured route. Refreshments shall be placed so that they are easily accessible to, or may be put by authorised persons into the hands of, the athletes. Such persons shall remain inside the designated area and not enter the course nor obstruct any athlete. No official or authorised person shall, under any circumstances, move beside an athlete while they are taking refreshment or

 

  • In competitions held under paragraphs 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 of the International Competition definition, a maximum of two officials per Member may be stationed at any one time behind the area designated for them.

 

Note: For an event in which a Member may be represented by more than three athletes, the Technical Regulations may allow additional officials at the refreshment tables.

 

  • An athlete may, at any time, carry water or refreshment by hand or attached to their body provided it was carried from the start or collected or received at an official

 

  • An athlete who receives or collects refreshment or water from a place other than the official stations, except where provided for medical reasons from or under the direction of race officials, or takes the refreshment of another athlete, should, for a first such offence, be warned by the Referee normally by showing a yellow card. For a second offence, the Referee shall disqualify the athlete, normally by showing a red card. The athlete shall then immediately leave the

 

Note: An athlete may receive from or pass to another athlete refreshment, water or sponges provided it was carried from the start or collected or received at an official station. However, any continuous support from an athlete to one or more others in such a way may be regarded as unfair assistance and warnings and/or disqualifications as outlined above may be applied.

 

Race Conduct

 

  • An athlete may leave the marked course with the permission and under the supervision of an official, provided that by going off course they do not shorten the distance to be

 

  • If the Referee is satisfied on the report of a Judge or Umpire or otherwise that an athlete has left the marked course thereby shortening the distance to be covered, they shall be

 

  • Umpires should be placed at regular intervals and at each key point. Other umpires should move along the course during the

 

It is acknowledged that following the practice of first giving a warning when applying relevant aspects of Rule 55 of the Technical Rules and where applicable Rules 6.2 and 6.3 of the Technical Rules will create difficulties in implementation but where the opportunity arises,  the Referee should do so. It is suggested that one option might be that course or refreshment station umpires be designated as assistant Referees and that they be in communication with the Referee and each other to ensure the effective co-ordination of warnings and disqualifications. But there remains the possibility as per the Note to Rule 6.2 of the Technical Rules that in some circumstances, disqualification can, and should, occur without a warning being given.

 

When a Transponder Timing System is not in use, or where an additional back-up recording system is desired, it is recommended that a funnel system such as that described for Cross Country Races in the commentary on Rule 56 of the Technical Rules be used.

 

PART VIII – CROSS COUNTRY, MOUNTAIN AND TRAIL RACES

(In force from 1 November 2019)

 

There are extreme variations in conditions in which Cross Country Running, Mountain Running and Trail Running are practised throughout the world and it is difficult to legislate international standardisation of these events. It must be accepted that the difference between very successful and unsuccessful events often lies in the natural characteristics of the venue and the abilities of the course designer. The following Rules are intended as a guide and incentive to assist Members to develop Cross Country Running, Mountain Running and Trail Running.

 

56.             (Rule 250) Cross Country Races Distances

  • Distances at World Athletics Cross Country Championships should be approximately: Men: 10km                Women:    10km

U20 Men:        8km                               U20 Women:   6km

 

The distances recommended for U18 competitions should be approximately: U18 Men:                       6km                  U18 Women                           4km

It is recommended that similar distances be used for other International and National competitions.

 

Course

 

  • Cross Country Course Rules, as follows:

 

  • The course must be designed on an open or woodland area, covered as far as possible by grass, with natural obstacles, which can be used by the course designer to build a challenging and interesting race

 

  • The area must be wide enough to accommodate not only the course but also all the necessary

 

  • For Championships and international events and, wherever possible, for other competitions:

 

  • A loop course must be designed, with the loop measuring between 1500m and 2000m. If necessary, a small loop can be added in order to adjust the distances to the required overall distances of the various events, in which case the small loop must be run in the early stages of the event. It is recommended that each long loop should have a total ascent of at least 10m.

 

  • Existing natural obstacles shall be used if possible. However, very high obstacles should be avoided, as should deep ditches, dangerous ascents / descents, thick undergrowth and, in general, any obstacle which would constitute a difficulty beyond the aim of the competition. It is preferable that artificial obstacles should not be used but if such use is unavoidable, they should be made to simulate natural obstacles met within open country. In races where there are large numbers of athletes, narrow gaps or other

 

hindrances which would deny the athletes an unhampered run shall be avoided for the first 300m.

 

  • The crossing of roads or any kind of macadamised surfaces shall be avoided or at least kept to a minimum. When it is impossible to avoid such conditions in one or two areas of the course, the areas must be covered by grass, earth or

 

  • Apart from the start and finish areas, the course must not contain any other long straight. A “natural”, undulating course with smooth curves and short straights, is the most

 

  • Course markings, as follows:

 

  • The course shall be clearly marked with tape on both sides. It is recommended that all along one side of the course a 1m wide corridor, heavily fenced from the outside of the course, shall be installed for the use of organisation officials and media only (obligatory for Championship events). Crucial areas must be heavily fenced; in particular the start area (including the Warm-up Area and the Call Room) and finish area (including any Mixed Zone). Only accredited people will be allowed access to these areas.

 

  • The general public should only be allowed to cross the course at well organised cross-over points, marshalled by

 

  • It is recommended that, apart from the start and finish areas, the course be a width of 5 metres, including the obstacle

 

  • For Cross Country Relays, lines 50mm wide 20m apart shall be drawn across the course to denote the takeover zone. All takeover procedures, which, unless otherwise specified by the organisers, shall comprise a physical contact between the incoming and outgoing athletes, shall be completed within this

 

Start

 

  • The races shall be started by the firing of a gun, cannon, air horn or like device. The commands for races longer than 400m shall be used (Rule 16.2.2 of the Technical Rules).

 

In races which include a large number of athletes, five-minute, three-minute and one- minute warnings should be given.

 

Wherever possible departure boxes should be provided for teams races with the members of each team to be lined up behind each other at the start of the race. In other races, the athletes shall be lined up in the manner determined by the organisers. On the command “On your marks”, the starter shall ensure that no athlete has their foot (or any part of their body) touching the start line or the ground in front of it, and shall then start the race.

 

Safety

 

  • Organisers of Cross Country Races shall ensure the safety of athletes and

 

Drinking / Sponging and Refreshment Stations

 

  • Water and other suitable refreshments shall be available at the start and finish of all races. For all events, a drinking / sponging station shall be provided every lap, if weather conditions warrant such

 

Note: Where conditions warrant, taking into account the nature of the event, the weather conditions and the state of fitness of the majority of the competitors, water and sponges may be placed at more regular intervals along the route.

 

Race Conduct

 

  • If the Referee is satisfied on the report of a Judge or Umpire or otherwise that an athlete has left the marked course thereby shortening the distance to be covered, they shall be

 

The finish area shall be wide enough to enable several runners to sprint side by side and long enough to separate them at the finish.

 

Unless a Transponder Timing System is being used together with a backup system (such as a video recording) to check finishing orders, finish lanes (“funnels”) should be set up some 8 to 10 metres after the finish line with a maximum width of 0.70-0.80m. Once in the funnels, the athletes must not be able to overtake one another. The funnels should be 35-40m long into which the athletes will be directed as they cross the finish line. At the end of each funnel, officials will note the athletes’ numbers/names and if applicable recover their transponder timing chips.

 

The funnels should have moveable ropes at the end at which the athletes enter, so that when one lane is full, the next rope can be drawn across behind the last athlete, to enable the next finisher to enter the new finish lane, and so on.

 

Judges and Timekeepers will additionally be placed on either side of the finish line and it is recommended that, in order to follow up any appeal relative to the finishing order, an official with video recording equipment (if possible with a timing clock in sight) shall be assigned and placed a few metres after the finish line in order to record the order in which the athletes cross the line.

 

57.             (Rule 251) Mountain and Trail races Part one: General Rules

Course

 

  • General Rules for the Course, as follows:

 

  • The discipline of Mountain and Trail Running takes place on various types of natural terrain (sand, dirt roads, forest paths, single track footpaths, snow trails etc), and in various kinds of environment (mountains, forests, plains, deserts etc). Races take place mostly on off-road surfaces, however sections of paved surfaces (e.g. asphalt, concrete, macadam etc.) are acceptable as a way to reach or link the trails of the course but should be kept to a minimum. Preferably existing roads and trails should be

 

 

 57.1.2For Mountain races only, some special exceptions do exist where races are held on a paved surface but are only acceptable when there are large elevation changes on the course.
57.1.3The course must be marked in such a way that no navigation skills will be required from the athletes.
57.1.4Trail races have no limits to distance or altitude gain or loss and the course must represent the logical discovery of a region.
57.1.5Mountain races are traditionally divided into “uphill” and “up and down” races. The average altitude gain or loss can vary from approx. 50 – 250 metres per kilometre, and the distances up to 42.2km.
Start  

 

  • Mountain and Trail races typically have mass starts. Runners can also start separated by gender or age-related

 

Safety, Environment

 

  • Organising Committees shall ensure the safety of athletes and officials. Specific conditions, such as high altitude, changing weather conditions and available infrastructure should be respected. The event organiser is responsible for taking care for the environment when planning the course, during and after the

 

Equipment

 

  • Mountain and Trail races do not imply the use of a particular technique, alpine or other, or the use of specific equipment, such as mountaineering equipment. The use of hiking poles could be permitted at the discretion of the Race organisation. The Race Organiser may recommend or impose mandatory equipment due to the conditions expected to be encountered during the race, which will allow the athlete to avoid a situation of distress or, in the case of an accident, to give the alert and wait in safety for the arrival of

 

Race Organisation

 

  • The Organiser shall, prior to the race, publish specific regulations of the race including at minimum:

 

  • Details of the organiser responsible (name, contact details)

 

  • Programme of the event

 

  • Detailed information about the technical characteristics of the race: total distance, total ascent / descent, description of the main difficulties of the track

 

  • A detailed map of the course

 

  • A detailed profile of the course

 

  • Course marking criteria

 

  • Location of the control posts and medical/aid stations (if applicable)

 

  • Allowed, recommended or mandatory equipment (if applicable)

 

  • Safety rules to be followed

 

  • Penalties and disqualification rules

 

  • Time limit and cut-off barriers (if applicable)

 

Part Two: International Technical Rules Scope of Application

  • While strongly recommended for all international championships, the application of the following technical rules is mandatory only in World Championships. For all Mountain and Trail Running events other than World Championships, the specific event rules and/or the national rules shall have precedence. If a Mountain and Trail Running competition is held under “International Technical Rules”, it must be specified in the event regulations. In all other cases, if a referee is appointed by a Member, an Area Association or the authority that oversees the competition, this person must ensure compliance with the general rules of Athletics but shall not enforce the following International Technical

 

Start

 

  • The commands for races longer than 400m shall be used (Rule 16.2.2 of the Technical Rules). In races which include a large number of athletes, five-minute, three-minute and one-minute warnings before the start of the race should be given. A 10s countdown to the start can also be

 

Race conduct

 

  • If the Referee is satisfied on the report of a judge, or Umpire, or otherwise, that an athlete:

 

  • has left the marked course thereby shortening the distance to be covered;

 

  • receives any form of assistance such as pacing, or refreshments outside of the official aid stations;

 

  • does not comply to any of the specific race regulations;

 

he shall be disqualified or get the penalty stated by the specific race regulations.

 

Specific Provisions for Trail Races

 

  • Specific provisions for Trail Races, as follows:

 

  • Sections of paved surfaces shall not exceed 25% of the total

 

  • Races are classified by “km-effort”; the km-effort measure is the sum of the distance expressed in kilometres and a hundredth of the vertical gain expressed in meters, rounded to the nearest whole number (for example, the km-effort of a race of 65km and 3500m ascent is: 65 + 3500/100 = 100); accordingly races will be classified as follows:

 

category                    km-effort

XXS                           0 – 24

XS                             25 – 44

S                                45 – 74

M                               75 – 114

L                                115 – 154

XL                              155 – 209

 

XXL                           210 +

 

  • World Championships races shall be based on the Short (S) and the Long
  • categories:

 

  1. in the Short race the distance must be between 35km and 45km and the minimum vertical gain 1500m or more;

 

  1. in the Long race the distance must be between 75km and

 

  • Competitions shall be based on the concept of self-sufficiency, meaning that the athletes will have to be autonomous between aid stations in terms of gear, communications, food and

 

  • A survival blanket (140cm x 200cm minimum size), a whistle and a mobile phone are the minimum items the athletes have to carry at all times. However, the LOC may impose additional mandatory items due to the conditions expected to be encountered during the

 

  • Aid stations at official competitions shall be sufficiently spaced out so as to respect the “principle of self-sufficiency”. The maximum total number of aid stations, excluding start and finish line, including water points, shall be no more than the km-effort points of the race divided by 15, rounded to the lower integer (example of a race with a km-effort of 58: 58/15=3.86, which means no more than 3 aid stations, excluding start and finish, are allowed).

 

Note: (i): In a maximum of half of the above aid stations, rounded to the lower integer, food, drinks and personal assistance may be given (e.g. maximum total number of aid stations 3, 3/2=1.5, maximum number of aid stations where food and personal assistance may be given is 1); at the remaining aid stations only drinks, but no food nor personal assistance, may be given.

 

Note (ii): aid stations layout, where personal assistance is allowed, shall be organized in a way that allows each country to have an individual table or allocated space, identified with the flag of the Country (or Territory) and where their official staff will give assistance to the athletes. Tables shall be organized by alphabetical order, and each team is allowed to have a maximum of 2 officials per table.

 

Note (iii): Assistance to the athletes may only be given at complete (food

 

and drinks) aid stations as defined above.

 

  • A finishing position resulting in a tie is permissible when clearly evident by the athletes’

 

Specific provisions for Mountain Races

 

  • Mountain races are classified as follows:

 

  • “Classic Uphill”

 

  • “Classic Up and Down”

 

  • “Vertical”,

 

  • “Long Distance”

 

  • Relays

 

  • In all categories other than Vertical, the average incline should be between 5% (or 50m per km) and 25% (or 250m per km). The most preferable average incline is approximately 10%-15% provided that the course remains runnable. These limits do not apply to the Vertical category, where the incline shall be not less than 25%.

 

  • World Championships races shall be based on the following categories and distances:

 

  • “Classic Uphill”: 5km to 6km for Juniors (men and women); 10km to 12km for Seniors (men and women)

 

  • “Classic Up and Down”: 5km to 6km for Juniors (men and women); 10km to 12km for Seniors (men and women)

 

  • “Vertical”: it should have at least 1000m of positive vertical elevation and be measured in a certified manner to an accuracy of +/-

 

  • “Long Distance”: the race distance should not exceed 42.2km and the nature of the course maybe mainly uphill or up and down. The total amount of ascent in the race should exceed 2000m. The men’s winning time should be between two and four hours and less than 20% of the distance should be paved

 

  • “Relays”: Any course or team combinations, included mixed gender / age group, are possible as long as they are defined and communicated in advance. Distance and elevation gain of each individual leg should respect the parameters of the “Classic”

 

Note: Classic Uphill and Classic Up and Down events traditionally alternate at each edition of the World Athletics Championships.

 

  • Water and other suitable refreshments shall be available at the start and finish of all races. Additional drinking / sponging stations should be provided at suitable places along the